Recent Articles

 

DNS at IETF 110

March 2021

The amount of activity in the DNS in the IETF seems to be growing every meeting. I thought that the best way to illustrate to considerably body of DNS working being undertaken at the IETF these days would be to take a snapshot of DNS activity that was reported to the DNS-related Working Group meetings at IETF 110. More...

 


TCP Congestion Control at IETF 110

March 2021

IETF 110 was held virtually in March 2020. These are some notes I took on the topic of current research activities in the area of transport protocol flow control at the meeting of the Internet Congestion Control Research Group at that meeting. More...

 


Measuring ROAs and ROV

March 2021

In 2020 APNIC Labs set up a measurement system for the validators. What we were trying to provide was a detailed view of where invalid routes were being propagated, and also take a longitudinal view of how things are changing over time. The report is at https://stats.labs.apnic.net/rpki and the description of the measurement is at https://www.potaroo.net/ispcol/2020-06/rov.html. I'd like to update this description with some work we’ve done on this measurement platform in recent months. More...

 


Notes from the DNS Privacy Workshop at NDSS 2021

March 2021

There are many issues that lurk just below the surface of the DNS, but in recent years one topic has been very prominent, namely privacy. You see the DNS is a precursor to almost everything we do on the Internet. And this is valuable information. More...

 


Notes from NANOG 81

February 2021

As the pandemic continues, the network operational community continues to meet online. NANOG held its 81st meeting on February 8 and 9, and these are my notes from some of the presentations at that meeting. More...

 


DNS OARC 34

February 2021

When too much DNS is barely enough! More...

 


An IPv6 Update for 2020

February 2021

The common theme of many of reviews of the Internet in 2020 has been that the Internet has been used to plug the gap caused by shutting down many of our physical venues where we previously worked and played. No matter what aspect of the Internet you look at, its clear that we all made much more use of the Internet this year. Here I would like to ask the inevitable IPv6 question: What role did IPv6 play in 2020? More...

 


The Internet of Trash

February 2021

It’s often a clear signal that we’re in in deep trouble when politicians believe that they need to lend a hand and help out with regulations. Either the actions of the market have failed consumers and some form of public action is necessary to address aspects of this failure, or the situation is so desperately broken and beyond help that the legislature is performing a largely ineffectual action that serves more to disclaim any residual responsibility on the part of the public sector for the mess that we’ve created. More...

 


Addressing 2020

January 2021

Time for another annual roundup from the world of IP addresses. Let’s see what has changed in the past 12 months in addressing the Internet and look at how IP address allocation information can inform us of the changing nature of the network itself. More...

 


BGP in 2020 - BGP Update Churn

January 2021

The first part of this report looked at the size of the routing table and looked at some projections of its growth for both IPv4 and IPv6. However, the scalability of BGP as the Internet’s routing protocol also is related to the rate of dynamic routing updates. If the update rate of BGP is growing faster than we can deploy processing capability to match, then the routing system will lose coherence, and at that point the network will head into periods of instability. This second part of the BGP report looks at the profile of BGP updates across 2020. More...

 


BGP in 2020 - The BGP Table

January 2021

At the start of each year I have been reporting on the behaviour of the inter-domain routing system over the past 12 months, looking in some detail at some metrics from the routing system that can show the essential shape and behaviour of the underlying interconnection fabric of the Internet. More...

 


DNS Oblivion

December 2020

The problem with both DoH and DoT is that neither is all that satisfactory from a privacy standpoint. It is more of a compromise approach that poses a difficult question to me, as the end user. If I have to compromise my privacy to a third party and expose the combination of my identity and the DNS queries I make, then who should be privy to this information? Which third party DNS provider represents the least risk to me now and in the future? It's a tough question, and the best answer not having to compromise my privacy at all. More...

 


DNS Flag Day 2020

December 2020

One of the outcomes of the 'stacked' architecture of network protocol design is that upper level protocols should not try to do the job of the lower layers. Packet adaptation through fragmentation is a IP layer 'problem' and applications do not have to concern themselves with this. We've come some distance from this position and these days many applications need to be highly aware of transport layer and IP layer properties, and the DNS is no exception. There have been some recent steps in the DNS with the DNS Flag Day 2020 to try and tune the DNS to avoid packet fragmentation. How bad is the problem with packet fragmentation and do the DNS Flag Day measures address the issue? More...

 


DNS 2XL

December 2020

This is the second part of a technical report on a detailed exploration of the way the Internet’s Domain Name System (DNS) interacts with the network when the size of the application transactions exceeds the underlying packet size limitations of hosts and networks. In this part we explore UDP-only and TCP-only behavious and also look at how to maximise the resilience of the DNS when handling larger responses. More...

 


DNS XL

November 2020

This is a technical report on a detailed exploration of the way the Internet’s Domain Name System (DNS) interacts with the network when the size of the application transactions exceeds the underlying packet size limitations of hosts and networks. More...

 


IETF 109

November 2020

The latest IETF meeting was held in mid-November. Here I’m going to pick just one presentation from each of a small collection of the week’s working group meetings and explore that topic in a little more detail. More...

 


DNS Trends

October 2020

We're now using the Internet's address infrastructure in very different ways than the way we had envisaged in the 1980's. The Internet’s name infrastructure is subject to the same evolutionary pressures, and its these pressures I’d like to look at here. How is the DNS is responding? More...

 


Securing Routing Q&A's

October 2020

Over the past few months I've had the opportunity at various network operator meetings to talk about BGP routing security. As usual, these presentations include an opportunity for questions from the audience. Here are a small collection of such questions and my efforts at trying to provide an answer. More...

 


Going Postal

October 2020

The Internet was not the first communications system constructed as compound service, where the end-to-end service was built using the services provided by many individual service providers. International telephony was constructed in a similar manner, and predating the telephone was the international postal service. In this article I’d like to look at the Universal Postal Union's track record of trying to construct a fair and efficient way to allow each service provider to be compensated for their part in the construction of the delivered end-to-end service. As with the Internet, it all comes down to the choice of the framework for settlement and peering between providers. More...

 


Scaling the Root of the DNS

September 2020

The DNS is a remarkably simple system. You send it queries and you get back answers. Simple. However, the DNS is simple in the same way that Chess or Go are simple. They are all constrained environments governed by a small set of rigid rules, but they all possess astonishing complexity. More...

 


DNS Query Privacy Revisited

September 2020

A year has passed since we first looked at the level of use of Query Name Minimisation in the DNS and at the time the results were not impressive. It's time to relook at this topic and see what has changed in the DNS resolution environment over the past 12 months. More...

 


The Making of an RFC in today's IETF

August 2020

These days the process of making an RFC involves extensive review. You might think that the result of this truly exhaustive document review process is some bright shiny truth that is stated with precision and clarity. But that is not necessarily so. Why not? More...

 


DNS OARC Meeting Notes

August 2020

In the Internet’s name space the DNS OARC meetings are a case where a concentrated burst of DNS tests the proposition that you just can't have too much DNS! OARC held its latest meeting on the 11th August with four presentations. Here's my thoughts on the material presented at that meeting. More...

 


On Cyber Governance

August 2020

APAN (Asia Pacific Advanced Network) brings together national research and education networks in the Asia Pacific region. APAN holds meetings twice a year to talk about current activities in the regional NREN sector. I was invited to be on a panel at APAN 50 on the subject of Cyber Governance, and I’d like to share my perspective on this topic here. More...

 


IPv6 and the DNS

July 2020

These days it seems that whenever we start to talk about the DNS the conversation immediately swings around to the subject of DNS over HTTPS (DoH) and the various implications of this technology. But that's not my intention here. I'd like to look at a different, but still very familiar and somewhat related, topic relating to the DNS, namely how IPv6 is being used as a transport protocol for DNS queries. More...

 


Measuring Route Origin Validation

June 2020

How well are we doing with the adoption of Route Origin Validation in the Inter-Domain routing space? How many users can no longer reach a destination if the only available ROAs mark the destination announcement as invalid? More...

 


Measuring IPv6

June 2020

This week I participated in a workshop on measurement of IPv6, organised by the US Naval Postgraduate School's Centre for Measurement and Analysis of Network Data (CMAND) and the folk at UC San Diego's Center for Applied Internet Data Analysis (CAIDA). Here's my notes from that workshop and a few opinions about IPv6 thrown is as well. More...

 


Where is the DNS Headed?

June 2020

I was on a panel at the recent Registration Operations Workshop on the topic of DNS Privacy and Encryption. The question I found myself asking was: “What has DNS privacy to do with registration operations?” More...

 


Technology Adoption in the Internet

June 2020

How are new technologies adopted in the Internet? What drives adoption? What impedes adoption? These were the questions posed at a panel session at the recent EuroDiG workshop in June. More...

 


DNS OARC 32a Meeting Report

June 2020

For many years I have been a keenly interested participant in the meetings organised by the DNS Operations and Research Community, or DNS OARC. This time around its most recent meeting headed into the online space. Here's my impressions of the material presented at the online DNS OARC 32a meeting. More...

 


A DNS view of Lockdown

June 2020

Over the past couple of decades, we've constructed two quite distinct online environments. There is the enterprise network which is commonly encountered at physical workplaces, and there is the consumer network which has been deployed across residential domains. The result is that many observed characteristics of the network have patterns that reflected the differences between these work and home environments. But what happened when the at-work workforce was sent home to work? What can the DNS tell us about the Lockdown? More...

 


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