Internet DRAFT - draft-higgs-tld-cat

draft-higgs-tld-cat



HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Tue, 09 Apr 2002 00:22:13 GMT
Server: Apache/1.3.20 (Unix)
Last-Modified: Tue, 23 Jul 1996 22:14:00 GMT
ETag: "304ca2-b977-31f54ea8"
Accept-Ranges: bytes
Content-Length: 47479
Connection: close
Content-Type: text/plain


INTERNET-DRAFT                                              Simon Higgs
Catagory: Informational                                   Higgs America
Expires January 31, 1997                                      July 1996

            Top Level Domain Classification and Catagorization
                     <draft-higgs-tld-cat-02.txt>


Status of this Memo

     This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are working
     documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its
     areas, and its working groups.  Note that other groups may also
     distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.

     Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
     months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
     documents at any time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-
     Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as
     ``work in progress.''

     To learn the current status of any Internet-Draft, please check
     the ``1id-abstracts.txt'' listing contained in the Internet-
     Drafts Shadow Directories on ftp.is.co.za (Africa),
     nic.nordu.net (Europe), munnari.oz.au (Pacific Rim),
     ds.internic.net (US East Coast), or ftp.isi.edu (US West Coast).


Abstract

   This memo is being distributed to members of the Internet
   community in order to solicit their reactions to the proposals
   contained in it.

   This memo replaces RFC 1591, with all the guidelines and
   procedures updated and modified in the light of experience.

   It describes the uses and classes of the top level domain space,
   and introduces new top level domains as an extension to the
   existing international commercial namespace (.COM). This memo
   suggests some ideas for the management of the establishment of
   new top level domains, some procedures for domain name
   registries, and some constraints on top level domain names.

   This memo does not attempt to provide a direct solution for
   preventing or resolving the domain name or trademark conflicts we
   have recently witnessed, but it does create a foundation where
   domain name conflict solutions can have maximum effect.


Table of Contents

   1.   Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
   2.   Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
   3.   Domain Name Space  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
   4.   Top Level Domain Creation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
   5.   Registry Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
   6.   Registry Fees  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
   7.   Expanding the Top Level Domain Space . . . . . . . . . . . .
   8.   Appeals  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
   9.   Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
   10.  Acknowlegements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
   11.  Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


1. Introduction

   This memo provides some information on the structure of the names
   in the Domain Name System (DNS), specifically the top-level domain
   names; and on the administration of domains. The Internet Domain
   Name Authority (IDNA) is the overall authority for Domain Names.
   The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is the overall
   authority for the IP Addresses, and many other parameters, used in
   the Internet. The day-to-day responsibility for the assignment of IP
   Addresses, Autonomous System Numbers, and most top and second level
   Domain Names are handled by Internet Registries (IR).

   Since the Internet's future is going to be driven by commercial
   market forces (i.e. the use of domain names to identify corporate
   business units which are known to the public as "brand names"), we
   should think about how to use those commercial aspects to the net's
   advantage. This document covers only the framework necessary to
   define the function, delegation, and use of new top level domains.
   Several factors need to be addressed such as why the TLD exists in
   the first place, who accepts registrations for the TLD, and what
   special purpose (if any) the TLD serves. These questions can be
   answered by the recognition of TLD "classes".

   This memo creates the structure for the creation of new top level
   domains, and introduces a number of new top level domains that are
   designed to reduce naming conflicts in the .COM zone.


2. Trademarks

   In Bruce Lehman's (Commissioner of the US Patent and Trademark
   Office) own words:

   "A trademark is nothing more than official recognition of something
   that already exists. It is the consumer's perception that something
   is in fact a trade name. It is from this perception that names can
   acquire secondary meaning through their use, and in doing so, come
   to be understood by the consuming public as the source of a
   particular good or service. If the name cannot be recognized as the
   source of a particular good or service, then that name is not a
   trademark. For example, a person's name is not a trademark. But, if
   a person goes into business using a particular name, that name might
   become a trademark.

   "The trademark law, unlike the patent law and the copyright law,
   exists to serve the consumer, not to serve the interests of the
   trademark owner. The primary operating principle of it is that the
   consumer is not supposed to be confused by a plethora of different
   products all bearing what appear to be similar names.

   "When the consumer thinks of a name, he knows that he's getting
   something that comes from the source he identifies traditionally as
   being that name. So if the letters that make up the name have
   acquired, in the minds of consumers, the reputation that they
   represent products in a given field (that only come from that one
   company), then the name has become a trademark." [END QUOTE]

   Two points must be kept in mind when understanding trademark issues
   on the internet: (a) domain names are and must be unique, and (b)
   trademarked names are not necessarily unique (and there are many
   examples of non-unique trademarks).

   There are no international trademarks. There is no official
   international registry of world wide trademarks. Trademarks may be
   registered per country (and in the United States (at least) per
   State).  The World Intellectual Property Organization offers an
   international arbitration service on such matters.


3. Domain Name Space

   3.1 The History of Domain Names

   The history of domain names can be found in [RFC 1034]. Domain name
   implementation and specification can be found in [RFC 1035].

   3.2. The Top Level Structure

   In the Domain Name System (DNS) naming of computers there is a
   hierarchy of names. The root of system is unnamed. There are a set
   of what are called "top-level domain names" (TLDs). These are
   identified either by ISO-3166 two letter country codes, or generic
   TLDs, whose naming indicates the catagory of organization that is
   found there.

   Under each TLD may be created a hierarchy of names. Generally,
   under the generic TLDs the structure is very flat. That is, many
   organizations are registered directly under the TLD, and any further
   structure is up to the individual organizations.

   The domain name space is a tree structure:

                               . (un-named root)
                                |
     ---------------------------------------------------------
     |       |       |       |       |      |      |         |
   .COM    .EDU    .NET    .ORG    .GOV    .US    .UK   [other TLDs]
                                     |
                                   USPTO
                                     |
                                    WWW

   The above example describes the internet host <www>.<uspto>.<gov>
   where GOV is the US government top level domain, USPTO is the
   domain used by the US Patent and Trademark office, and the WWW
   identifies that organization's host (computer) that functions as
   their web server.

   In the country TLDs, there is a wide variation in the structure, in
   some countries the structure is very flat, in others there is
   substantial structural organization. In some country domains the
   second levels are generic categories (such as, AC, CO, GO, and RE),
   in others they are based on political geography, and in still
   others, organization names are listed directly under the country
   code. The organization for the US country domain is described in
   RFC 1480.


   As an example of a country domain, the US domain provides for the
   registration of all kinds of entities in the United States on the
   basis of political geography, that is, a hierarchy of
   <entity-name>.<locality>.<state-code>.US. For example,
   "IBM.Armonk.NY.US". In addition, branches of the US domain are
   provided within each state for schools (K12), community colleges
   (CC), technical schools (TEC), state government agencies (STATE),
   councils of governments (COG), libraries (LIB), museums (MUS), and
   several other generic types of entities (see RFC 1480 for details).

   The country code domains (for example, FR, NL, KR, US) are each
   organized by an administrator for that country. These administrators
   may further delegate the management of portions of the naming tree.
   These administrators are performing a public service on behalf of
   the Internet community.

   3.3 Political decisions

   The political decisions about the top levels of the tree
   originated in [RFC-920], with current information in this memo.
   The current policy for the top level and second level domains is
   discussed in [RFC-1032]. [RFC-1178] describes the choices in
   naming a host. MILNET conversion issues are covered in [RFC-1031].

   3.4 TLD Classes

   Top level domains can be divided into three groups. There are those
   which are non-exclusive, and which can be served by multiple
   registries. There are those that may need to be served by a single,
   registry that has the necessary expertize to address
   specific issues , and there are a very small number which
   may be required in the future to serve single large organizations.

      3.4.1. Openly Competitive TLD Class

      The Openly Competitive TLD Class contains TLD's which are
      represented to the public by multiple registries. Unless
      specifically documented otherwise in the TLD's charter, all new
      TLDs will be in this class. Existing TLDs may be delegated by
      IANA into this class as well.

      3.4.2. Specialized TLD Class

      The Specialized TLD Class describes TLDs that are
      industry-specific, or where a high-level of domain name control
      is needed. These TLD's are operated by a single registry.
      Registration is only open to organizations within the specific
      areas defined in the TLDs charter. The registry must be able to
      address specific issues arising from the use of and delegation
      of a particular domain. These TLD's could represent specific
      industries, other closely defined market niches, or top level
      country domains. The registry must display direct expertise in
      the area of specialization and is able to constructively address
      issues in the context of running a TLD registry

      An example of an existing TLD in this class is .INT which is
      closely controlled and is only open to International Treaty
      Organizations.

      3.4.3. Single Organization TLD

      In certain rare instances, it may be possible for a qualifying
      internationally known organization to be identified on the
      Internet by it's own exclusive TLD. All second and third level
      domain name registrations are performed within the organization.
      The organization is the sole trustee of the TLD, and all disputes
      arising from domain name delegation are the organizations
      responsibility.

      An example of an existing TLD in this class is .MIL., which is
      exclusively operated by, and for, the United States military


4. Top Level Domain Creation

   4.1. Delegation

      The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is responsible
      for the overall coordination and management of the Domain Name
      System (DNS), and especially the delegation of portions of the
      name space called top-level domains. Most of these top-level
      domains are two-letter country codes taken from the ISO standard
      3166.

      Internet Registries (IR) are selected and designated to handled
      the bulk of the day-to-day administration of the Domain Name
      System. Applications for new top-level domains are handled by the
      Internet DNS Names Review Board (IDNB), a committee established
      by the IANA.

      The application process to create a new TLD is described in
      another memo. The following policy applies to all TLDs.

   4.2. Top Level Domain Policy

      The policy concerns involved when a new top-level domain is
      established are described in the following. Also mentioned are
      concerns raised when it is necessary to change the delegation of
      an established domain from one party to another.

      Most of these same concerns are relevant when a sub-domain is
      delegated and in general the principles described here apply
      recursively to all delegations of the Internet DNS name space.

      In the past, a new top-level domain was created and its
      management delegated to a "designated manager" all at once. This
      was because each TLD was managed by a single registry. In order
      to open competition in the area of domain registrations, it may
      be necessary for each TLD to be managed by a group of trustees
      made up from the management of each registry serving that TLD.

      The major concern in selecting trustees for a domain is that the
      management be able to carry out the necessary responsibilities,
      and have the ability to do a equitable, just, honest, and
      competent job.

   4.2.1. The key requirement is that for each domain there be a
          trustee for supervising that domain's name space. In the
          case of TLDs that are country codes this means that there is
          a manager that supervises the domain names and operates the
          domain name system in that country. In the case of domains
          managed by multiple registries this function is handled by a
          group of trustees made up of a single member from each
          participating registry.

          The trustees must, of course, be on the Internet. There must
          be Internet Protocol (IP) connectivity to the nameservers and
          email connectivity to the management and staff of each of the
          trustees.

          There must be an administrative contact and a technical
          contact for each domain. For TLDs that are country codes at
          least the administrative contact must reside in the country
          involved. For TLDs administered by multiple IRs, an
          administrative and technical must be listed from each
          registry.

   4.2.2. These designated authorities are trustees for the delegated
          domain, and have a duty to serve the community.

          The designated manager is the trustee of the top-level
          domain for both the nation, in the case of a country code,
          and the global Internet community.

          Concerns about "rights" and "ownership" of domains are
          inappropriate. It is appropriate to be concerned about
          "responsibilities" and "service" to the community.

   4.2.3. The designated trustees must be equitable to all groups that
          request domain names.

          This means that the same rules are applied to all requests,
          all requests must be processed in a non-discriminatory
          fashion, and academic and commercial (and other) users are
          treated on an equal basis. No bias shall be shown regarding
          requests that may come from customers of some other business
          related to the manager -- e.g., no preferential service for
          customers of a particular data network provider. There can be
          no requirement that a particular mail system (or other
          application), protocol, or product be used.

          There are no requirements on subdomains of top-level domains
          beyond the requirements on higher-level domains themselves.
          That is, the requirements in this memo are applied
          recursively. In particular, all subdomains shall be allowed
          to operate their own domain name servers, providing in them
          whatever information the subdomain manager sees fit (as long
          as it is true and correct).

   4.2.4. Significantly interested parties in the domain should agree
          that the designated trustees are the appropriate parties.

          However, it is also appropriate for interested parties to
          have some voice in selecting the designated trustees. For
          TLDs served by multiple registries, the management of the TLD
          will be delegated to a group of trustees comprised of one
          member from each participating IR.

          The IANA tries to have any contending parties reach agreement
          among themselves, and generally takes no action to change
          things unless all the contending parties agree; only in cases
          where the designated trustees have substantially mis-behaved
          would the IANA step in.

          There are two cases where the IDNB may establish a new TLD
          and delegate only a portion of it: (1) there are contending
          parties that cannot agree, or (2) the applying party may not
          be able to represent or serve the whole country. The later
          case sometimes arises when a party outside a country is
          trying to be helpful in getting networking started in a
          country -- this is sometimes called a "proxy" DNS service.

          The IDNB will act as a review panel for cases in which the
          parties can not reach agreement among themselves. The IDNB's
          decisions will be binding.

   4.2.5. The trustee must do a satisfactory job of operating the DNS
          service for the domain.

          That is, the actual management of the assigning of domain
          names, delegating subdomains and operating nameservers must
          be done with technical competence. This includes keeping the
          IRs (in the case of top-level domains) or other higher-level
          domain management advised of the status of the domain,
          responding to requests in a timely manner, and operating the
          database with accuracy, robustness, and resilience.

          There must be a primary and a secondary nameserver that have
          IP connectivity to the Internet and can be easily checked
          for operational status and database accuracy by the IR, the
          IDNB and the IANA.

          In cases when there are persistent problems with the proper
          operation of a domain, the delegation may be revoked, and
          possibly delegated to another designated manager, or group of
          trustees.

   4.2.6. For any transfer of the designated manager trusteeship from
          one organization to another, the higher-level domain manager
          (the IANA in the case of top-level domains) must receive
          communications from both the old organization and the new
          organization that assure the IANA that the transfer is
          mutually agreed, and that the new organization understands
          its responsibilities.

          It is also very helpful for the IANA to receive
          communications from other parties that may be concerned or
          affected by the transfer.

   4.3. Rights to Names

   4.3.1. Names and Trademarks

          This memo recognizes that the use of the domain name space
          has changed since it was first introduced. This change was
          not brought about by conscious choice or any one person, but
          the change in the demographics of the internet population as
          a whole.

          As the internet population increases, and the demographic
          changes from an academic to a consumer population, more
          importance is placed on the identity of the source of goods
          or services on the internet. Although there is no trademark
          status attached to a domain name when it is issued, through
          its use, a domain name can aquire secondary meaning in the
          eyes of the internet consumer. As such, the legal status of
          a domain name, taken on a domain by domain basis, may include
          the form of a trademark.

          Many of the problems regarding domain names as trademarks
          arise because they incorporate terms that have already
          aquired secondary meaning outside the internet. Certain words
          or phrases already have associations with products or
          services in the minds of consumers. One of the questions this
          poses is whether an existing trademark gives any entitlement
          to a domain name. The answer is not clear, and probably will
          never be entirely clear. New businesses started on the net
          with a similar domain name but that do not compete with an
          existing trademark holder have already faced litigation.
          Others in the same position have not.

          It should be noted that certain generic elements, such as
          the top level domain suffix, should not infer any special
          status, nor should common prefixes such as www, ftp, gopher,
          or similarly used common nmemonics. In special circumstances,
          it may be possible that a combination of domain name elements
          (also known as an atomic string) is allowed, but this can
          only be decided by a duly appointed trademark examiner at the
          time of a trademark registration, or by a decision made by a
          court of law. In either case, this can only be done on an
          individual domain by domain basis in exactly the same manner
          as names used outside of the internet.

          The domain name space was never intended to be a directory
          service, and this memo does not describe a method of indexing
          the name space. It must be acknowledged however, that by
          identifying the source of goods or services, the domain name
          space becomes, in the eyes of the consumer, a limited form
          of directory service that can assist in the location of a
          particular good or service on the internet.

          It is up to the requestor to be sure he is not violating
          anyone else's trademark. The IR must include a statement to
          this effect in any registration template.

          In case of a dispute between domain name registrants as to
          the rights to a particular domain name, the registration
          authority shall have no role or responsibility other than to
          provide the contact information to both parties. In any
          dispute where the IR is named in any lawsuit, the IR should
          file an "Interpleader"** before the court, agreeing to abide
          by the ruling of that =E7ourt. Until such a time, the IR is
          obligated to provide uninterupted service of the domain in
          the root database.

          ** Interpleader - The IR informs the court that if the court
          will please decide who is entitled to the domain name, and if
          the court will please let the IR know, then the IR will
          delegate the domain name to the correct party.

   4.3.2. Well-Known Domain Name Registrations

          It seems inevitable that a trademark holder will want a
          domain name that reflects the name of the trademark held.

          There are "strong" trademarks that are registered in many
          countries and are vigorously defended. These may come close
          to being unique.  There are many "not so strong" trademarks
          that may be regional or business sector specific (for
          example, United Air Lines and United Van Lines, or the Acme
          Brick Company and the Acme Electric Corporation)).

          There are two conflicting goals of different trademark
          holders with respect to domain names: (a) to protect their
          trademarks against infringement, and (2) to have access to
          the domain name system to use their trademarks in a domain
          name.

          Trademark infringement is the use of a trademarked name in a
          way that may confuse the consumer about the source or quality
          of a product or service. For strong trademarks there may also
          be infringement if the use of a trademarked name dilutes the
          value of the trademark.

          Holders of not so strong trademarks want the ability to use
          their trademarked name in a domain name while some other
          holder of the same mark for a different purpose also can use
          their trademarked name in a domain name. These people would
          say it is essential to create additional top-level domains
          to permit fair access to domain names by holders of not so
          strong trademarks.

          The number of not so strong trademarks far exceeds the number
          of strong trademarks and that the domain name system should
          provide for the needs of the many rather than protecting the
          privileges of the few. It is because of this need that the
          top level domain space must be expanded beyond the currently
          used TLDs.

          It may be prudent, in the case of the Specialized TLD Class,
          that they implement a very restrictive TLD charter. For
          example, it may be a requirement that the domain applicant
          is in possesion of an International call-sign to register
          a domain in .RADIO. Or be a recognized news source to
          register in .NEWS.

          Given that no rights or legal status are provided with a
          domain name, it may be possible to auction domain names off
          to the highest bidder in the same way the FCC auctions off
          block of the radio frequency spectrum.

   4.3.3. Country Codes

          Neither the IDNB, nor the IANA is in the business of
          deciding what is and what is not a country.

          The selection of the ISO 3166 list as a basis for country
          code top-level domain names was made with the knowledge that
          ISO has a procedure for determining which entities should
          be and should not be on that list.

   4.4. TLD Charters

      Each new TLD must be created with an identifiable purpose. A
      written charter will identify and explain the function and
      purpose of each TLD.

      In the case of the Specialized and Corporate TLD classes
      (described below), the corporation or organization acting as
      the registry will be responsible for creating the TLD's charter.
      This will be part of the TLD application process. Guidelines
      for charter creation will be made publically available by IANA.

      The following items must be identified in the charter:

      4.2.1  Registration procedure, documenting all steps

      4.2.2  Service guarantees required in the operation of that TLD

      4.2.3  Error resolution policy (including any refund policy)

      4.2.4  Dispute policy (including any refund policy)

      4.2.5  Procedure for dealing with domain name and trademark
             conflicts.

   4.3. Registry's Failure To Enforce Charter

      In processing registrations, each registry must observe the
      procedures laid out in the charter for each TLD. Should a
      delegated registry be unable or unwilling to enforce a TLD
      charter, then at the IDNB's discretion, the authority to accept
      or process registrations for that TLD would be removed, and the
      TLD would be assigned to another registry.


5. Registry Selection

   The function of the registry is to support and maintain the TLD(s)
   that it is responsible for, by meeting the TLD's charter. It is
   important to understand that the registries serve the TLD's, and not
   the other way around. Therefore registries must be selected to meet
   the needs of each TLD.

   New registries (IRs) will be selected by the IDNB, and delegated
   TLDs to manage. Registrations are accepted on a first come first
   served basis.

   The registry application process is described in another memo. All
   registries must comply with the following guidelines:

  5.1. Openly Competitive TLD Class

      Each Openly Competitive TLD must be operated by multiple
      registries. Each registry is responsible for registering
      secondary domains in a competitive marketplace alongside other
      registries.

      The following criteria must be met:

      5.1.1.  the registry must be approved by the IDNB

      5.1.2.  the registry has the ability to operate at least two
              TLD nameservers

      5.1.3.  the registry makes peering arrangements with NAP's if
              they run their own backbones between NAP locations or
              commonly used backbone data exchange points

      5.1.4   payment of a set up fee and annual license fee to operate
              each TLD (proceeds go to a fund administered by ISOC for
              the maintenance and upkeep of critical internet
              components, such as the root nameservers)

      5.1.5.  the registry must observe and enforce the charter of
              each TLD

   5.2. Specialized TLD Class

      Each Specialized TLD is operated by a single registry who is
      granted a monopoly status within a specific TLD catagory,
      and is responsible for registering all secondary domains.

      The following criteria must be met:

      5.2.1.  the registry must be approved by the IDNB

      5.2.2.  the registry displays direct expertise in the chosen area
              of business and is able to constructively address issues
              in the context of running a TLD registry

      5.2.3.  the registry must have the ability to operate at least
              two TLD nameservers

      5.2.4.  the registry makes peering arrangements with NAP's if
              they run their own backbones between NAP locations or
              commonly used backbone data exchange points

      5.2.5.  payment of a set up fee and annual license fee to operate
              the TLD (proceeds go to a fund administered by ISOC for
              the maintenance and upkeep of critical internet
              components, such as the root nameservers)

      5.2.6.  the registry must observe and enforce the charter of
              each TLD

   5.3. Corporate TLD Class

      Each Corporate TLD is operated by a single company who has
      exclusive use of the TLD. It is that company's responsibilty
      for all registrations under this TLD, including a charter.

      The following criteria must be met:

      5.2.1.  the organization must be approved by the IDNB

      5.2.2.  the registry must have the ability to operate at least
              two TLD nameservers

      5.2.4.  the organization makes peering arrangements with NAP's if
              they run their own backbones between NAP locations or
              commonly used backbone data exchange points

      5.2.5.  payment of a set up fee and annual license fee to operate
              the TLD (proceeds go to a fund administered by ISOC for
              the maintenance and upkeep of critical internet
              components, such as the root nameservers)

      5.2.6.  the organization is responsible for observing and
              enforcing it's own charter


6. Registry Fees

   The registry fee schedule is described in another memo.


7. Expanding the Top Level Domain Space

   The top level namespace is divided up by catagory. These catagories
   contain either the geographical location (by country), or a brief
   description of the type of entity registering a domain name.

   In order to expand the top level, and lighten the load on the
   existing TLDs (most notably .COM), a catagory naming scheme is
   needed to avoid, or at the very least, limit the number of potential
   disputes in the domain name space. By allowing organizations to
   obtain and use domain names within their specific area of business,
   two companies with the same business name, can operate domain names
   on the internet without causing confusion to the consumer in exactly
   the same way they would outside the internet. By placing each
   company under a top level domain that describes its business
   catagory, it will be easier to determine that <smith>.<meat>, the
   hamburger company, is not <smith>.<oil>, the gas station chain. The
   mapping scheme is primarily designed to protect the consumer from
   fraud by describing the area of business and to establish an
   identity of the source of goods and services provided over the
   internet. It does not provide any trademark recognition or status.

   The catagories listed below are not perfect. It is still possible
   for conflicts to occur, as two organizations that do not directly
   compete in a way to confuse the consumer to be both registered
   under the same catagory under the same name outside of the internet.
   This is especially true in the international realm where companies
   can have identical names and never meet to compete geographically.
   However, this is an area where, after a year of many folks on the
   internet asking, the experts continually say there is no solution
   readily at hand. The following new TLDs are loosely based upon the
   International Trademark Schedule of Goods and Services. It is used
   as a TEMPLATE only. There is no direct mapping of existing
   trademarks, future trademarks, or other intellectual property.

   It is completely impractical to infer any kind of trademark
   ownership to an assigned domain name at the time it is issued.
   Domain names issued still have to aquire that secondary meaning
   through use, and through its ability to determine the source of
   the goods and services provided, in order for a trademark to be
   recognizable or assigned by a trademark authority.

   Some companies say, "So what? We'll go and register under every
   TLD." The answer is in the TLD charter described above and the
   obligation of each registry to enforce that charter. If a TLD's
   catagory/description is for soap, a company should only be able to
   register in that catagory if it has a legitimate soap business. If a
   company has a chemical division, and an oil division, they can
   legitimately be in two TLD's provided that each presence is
   distinguishable from the other. If the company is large enough to
   fill all the catagories, maybe it should think of removing itself
   from this part of the namespace and apply for it's own TLD.
   Provisions for this are also described above.

   The problem this also addresses is the one faced by most companies
   of how to direct their internet presence. Faced with one home
   page, those areas fighting for attention include the annual report
   to shareholders, PR & press releases, assorted company divisions
   publishing their business-to-business information, as well as the
   main consumer presence (tech. support, product info, online
   upgrades, etc.). This mapping scheme could, in theory, allow each
   business unit to establish its own internet presence without
   competing against other internal company resources or outside
   competitors.

   7.1. Existing International Generic Top Level Domains

   .EDU     4 year colleges and universities. Schools and 2-year
            colleges should be registered in the country domains.

   .NET     NIC and NOC computers, administrative computers, and
            network node computers. Customers of network providers
            should have domain names of their own (not in the NET TLD).

   .ORG     Miscellaneous TLD for organizations that don't fit anywhere
            else. Non-government organizations may fit here.

   .INT     This domain is for organizations established by
            international treaties, or international databases.

   .COM     Commercial entities, i.e. businesses and companies.

   7.2. Existing United States-Only Generic Domains

   .GOV     US Federal government agencies. State and local agencies
            are registered under the the .US country TLD.

   .MIL     US Military.

   7.3. Existing ISO-3166 Country Domains

   The top level country domains follow ISO-3166. There is one anomoly,
   .UK which is grandfathered into this group.

   7.4. New Top Level Domains

   .CHEM       Chemicals used in industry, science and photography, as
               well as in agriculture, horticulture and forestry;
               unprocessed artificial resins, unprocessed plastics;
               manures; fire extinguishing compositions; tempering and
               soldering preparations; chemical substances for
               preserving foodstuffs; tanning substances; adhesives
               used in industry.

   .PAINT      Paints, varnishes, lacquers; preservatives against rust
               and against deterioration of wood; colorants; mordants;
               raw natural resins; metals in foil and powder form for
               painters, decorators, printers and artists.

   .CLEAN      Bleaching preparations and other substances for laundry
               use; cleaning polishing, scouring and abrasive
               preparations; soaps; perfumery, essential oils,
               cosmetics, hair lotions; dentifrices.

   .OIL        Industrial oils and greases; lubricants; dust absorbing,
               wetting and binding compositions; fuels (including motor
               spirit) and illuminants; candles, wicks.

   .PHA        Pharmaceutical, veterinary and sanitary preparations;
               dietetic substances adapted for medical use, food for
               babies; plasters, materials for dressings; material for
               stopping teeth, dental wax; disinfectants; preparations
               for destroying vermin; fungicides, herbicides.

   .ORE        Common metals and their alloys; metal building
               materials; transportable buildings of metal; materials
               of metal for railway tracks; non-electric cables and
               wires of common metal; ironmongery, small items of metal
               hardware; pipes and tubes of metal; safes; goods of
               common metal not included in other classes; ores.

   .PTL        Machines and machine tools; motors and engines (except
               for land vehicles); machine coupling and transmission
               components (except for land vehicles); agricultural
               implements; incubators for eggs.

   .HTL        Hand tools and implements (hand operated); cutlery;
               side arms; razors.

   .DATA       Scientific, nautical, surveying, electric, photographic,
               cinematographic, optical, weighing, measuring,
               signalling, checking (supervision), life-saving and
               teaching apparatus and instruments; apparatus for
               recording, transmission or reproduction of sound or
               images; magnetic data carriers, recording discs;
               automatic vending machines and mechanisms for coin
               operated apparatus; cash registers, calculating
               machines, data processing equipment and computers;
               fire-extinguishing apparatus.

   .ARTIF      Surgical, medical, dental and veterinary apparatus and
               instruments, artificial limbs, eyes and teeth;
               orthopedic articles; suture materials.

   .UTIL       Apparatus for lighting, heating, steam generating,
               cooking, refrigerating, drying, ventilating, water
               supply and sanitary purposes.

   .VEH        Vehicles; apparatus for locomotion by land, air or
               water.

   .ITAR       Firearms; ammunition and projectiles; explosives;
               fireworks. Goods regulated under the International
               Traffic In Arms Regulations.

   .GEM        Precious metals and their alloys and goods in precious
               metals or coated therewith, not included in other
               classes; jewelry, precious stones; horological and
               chronometric instruments.

   .MUSIC      Musical instruments. Record companies. Musical groups
               and orchestras.

   .PRINT      Paper, cardboard and goods made from these materials,
               not included in other classes; printed matter,
               bookbinding material; photographs; stationery;
               adhesives for stationery or household purposes;
               artists' materials; paint brushes; typewriters and
               office requisites (except furniture); instructional
               and teaching material (except apparatus); playing
               cards; printers' type; printing blocks.

   .PLAS       Rubber, gutta-percha, gum asbestos, mica and goods
               made from these materials and not included in other
               classes; plastics in extruded form for use in
               manufacture; packing, stopping and insulating
               materials; flexible pipes, not of metal.

   .DERM       Leather and imitations of leather, and goods made of
               these materials and not included in other classes;
               animal skins, hides; trunks and travelling bags;
               umbrellas, parasols and walking sticks; whips,
               harness and saddlery.

   .LOAM       Building materials (non-metallic); non-metallic rigid
               pipes for building; asphalt, pitch and bitumen;
               non-metallic transportable buildings; monuments, not
               of metal.

   .FURN       Furniture, mirrors, picture frames; goods (not
               included in other classes) of wood, cork, reed, cane,
               wicker, horn, bone, ivory, whalebone, shell, amber,
               mother-of-pearl, meerschaum and substitutes for all
               these materials, or of plastics.

   .UTEN       Household or kitchen appliances, utensils and containers
               (not of precious metal or coated therewith); combs and
               sponges; brushes (except paint brushes); brush-making
               materials; articles for cleaning purposes; steel wool;
               unworked or semi-worked glass (except glass used in
               building); glassware, porcelain and earthenware not
               included in other classes.

   .ROPE       Ropes, string, nets, tents, awnings, tarpaulins, sails,
               sacks and bags (not included in other classes); padding
               and stuffing materials) except of rubber or plastics);
               raw fibrous textile materials.

   .YARN       Yarns and threads, for textile use.

   .TEX        Textiles and textile goods, not included in other
               classes; bed and table covers.

   .WEAR       Clothing, footwear, headgear.

   .CRAFT      Lace and embroidery, ribbons and braid; buttons, hooks
               and eyes, pins and needles; artificial flowers.

   .FLOOR      Carpets, rugs, mates and matting, linoleum and other
               materials for covering existing floors; wall hangings
               (non-textile).

   .GAMES      Games and playthings; gymnastic and sporting articles
               not included in other classes; decorations for
               Christmas trees.

   .FOOD       Meat, fish, poultry and game; meat extracts; preserved,
               dried and cooked fruits and vegetables; jellies, jams,
               fruit sauces; eggs, milk and milk products; edible oils
               and fats.

   .COND       Coffee, tea, cocoa, sugar, rice tapioca, sago,
               artificial coffee; flour and preparations made from
               cereals, bread, pastry and confectionery, honey,
               treacle; yeast, baking-powder; salt, mustard; vinegar,
               sauces (condiments); spices; ice.

   .AGRI       Agricultural, horticultural and forestry products and
               grains not included in other classes; live animals;
               fresh fruits and vegetables; seeds, natural plants and
               flowers; foodstuffs for animals, malt.

   .BEV        Mineral and aerated waters and other
               non-alcoholic drinks; fruit drinks and fruit juices;
               syrups and other preparations for making beverages.

   .ALC        Alcoholic beverages.

   .BUS        Advertising; business management; business
               administration; office functions.

   .FIN        Insurance; financial affairs; monetary affairs; real
               estate affairs.

   .CONST      Building construction; repair; installation services.

   .TEL        Telecommunications.

   .TRAV       Transport; packaging and storage of goods; travel
               arrangement.

   .TREAT      Treatment of materials.

   .CUL        Education; providing of training; sporting and
               cultural activities.

   .XXX        Sexually explicit material.

   .ENT        Entertainment

   .NEWS       News services.

   .RAD        Radio stations with international call-signs.

   .MOV        Film, cinema, and TV releases.


8. Appeals

   An appeals process has yet to be defined, and will appear in a
   later draft. IANA is accepted as the appeals body for the purpose
   of this draft.


9. Security Considerations

   There are no known security considerations beyond those already
   existent in the DNS.


10. Acknowlegements

   This memo includes much of the material in RFC1591. It also includes
   issues discussed in several mailing lists, most notably
   <newdom@iiia.org> and <domain-policy@internic.net>. The
   International Trademark Schedule for Goods and Services has been
   folded, spindled and mutilated in an attempt to devise sensible new
   TLD catagories and remove any trademark status. Commissioner Bruce
   Lehman's words in Section 2 are from an interview by the author in
   1993. Some minor passages are taken from Jon Postel's domain name
   registry draft.

   Valuable feedback, review, and inspiration have been provided by:

       Jon Postel                <postel@isi.edu>
       Bill Manning              (bmanning@isi.edu>
       Karl Denniger             <karl@mcs.net>
       Michael Dillon            <michael@memra.com>
       Dan Burk                  <dburk@osf1.gmu.edu>
       Greg Woods                <woods@most.weird.com>

   Many others have contributed in one way or another. I am grateful
   to the many people that point out that "it'll never work!"


11. Author's Address

      Simon Higgs
      Higgs America
      P.O. Box 3083
      Van Nuys, CA  91407-3083
      Phone: 818-899-1875
      Fax:   818-890-0677
      email: simon@higgs.com

Expires January 31, 1997.