Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                A. Rodriguez-Natal
Request for Comments: 9437                                         Cisco
Category: Standards Track                                     V. Ermagan
ISSN: 2070-1721                                                   Google
                                                             A. Cabellos
                                                               S. Barkai
                                                            M. Boucadair
                                                             August 2023

 Publish/Subscribe Functionality for the Locator/ID Separation Protocol


   This document specifies an extension to the Locator/ID Separation
   Protocol (LISP) control plane to enable Publish/Subscribe (PubSub)

Status of This Memo

   This is an Internet Standards Track document.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at

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   Copyright (c) 2023 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction
     1.1.  Scope of Applicability
   2.  Terminology and Requirements Notation
   3.  Deployment Requirements
   4.  Map-Request PubSub Additions
   5.  Mapping Request Subscribe Procedures
   6.  Mapping Notification Publish Procedures
   7.  Security Considerations
     7.1.  Security Association between ITR and Map-Server
     7.2.  DDoS Attack Mitigation
   8.  IANA Considerations
   9.  References
     9.1.  Normative References
     9.2.  Informative References
   Appendix A.  Sample PubSub Deployment Experiences
     A.1.  PubSub as a Monitoring Tool
     A.2.  Mitigating Negative Map-Cache Entries
     A.3.  Improved Mobility Latency
     A.4.  Enhanced Reachability with Dynamic Redistribution of
     A.5.  Better Serviceability
   Authors' Addresses

1.  Introduction

   The Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP) [RFC9300] [RFC9301] splits
   IP addresses into two different namespaces: Endpoint Identifiers
   (EIDs) and Routing Locators (RLOCs).  LISP uses a map and encapsulate
   (a.k.a., map-and-encap) approach that relies on (1) a Mapping System
   (basically a distributed database) that stores and disseminates EID-
   RLOC mappings and on (2) LISP Tunnel Routers (xTRs) that encapsulate
   and decapsulate data packets based on the content of those mappings.

   Ingress Tunnel Routers (ITRs), Re-encapsulating Tunnel Routers
   (RTRs), and Proxy Ingress Tunnel Routers (PITRs) pull EID-to-RLOC
   mapping information from the Mapping System by means of an explicit
   request message.  Section 6.1 of [RFC9301] indicates how Egress
   Tunnel Routers (ETRs) can tell ITRs/RTRs/PITRs about mapping changes.
   This document presents a Publish/Subscribe (PubSub) extension in
   which the Mapping System can notify ITRs/RTRs/PITRs about mapping
   changes.  When this mechanism is used, mapping changes can be
   notified faster and can be managed in the Mapping System versus the
   LISP sites.

   In general, when an ITR/RTR/PITR wants to be notified for mapping
   changes for a given EID-Prefix, the following main steps occur:

   1.  The ITR/RTR/PITR builds a Map-Request for that EID-Prefix with
       the Notification-Requested bit (N-bit) set and that also includes
       its xTR-ID and Site-ID.

   2.  The Map-Request is forwarded to one of the Map-Servers that the
       EID-Prefix is registered to.

   3.  The Map-Server creates subscription state for the ITR/RTR/PITR on
       the EID-Prefix.

   4.  The Map-Server sends a Map-Notify to the ITR/RTR/PITR to confirm
       that the subscription has been created and then waits for an
       acknowledgement of the notification.

   5.  The ITR/RTR/PITR sends back a Map-Notify-Ack to acknowledge the
       successful receipt of the Map-Notify.

   6.  When there is a change in the mapping of the EID-Prefix, the Map-
       Server sends a Map-Notify message to each ITR/RTR/PITR in the
       subscription list.

   7.  Each ITR/RTR/PITR sends a Map-Notify-Ack to acknowledge the
       received Map-Notify.

   This operation is repeated for all EID-Prefixes for which ITRs/RTRs/
   PITRs want to be notified.  An ITR/RTR/PITR can set the N-bit for
   several EID-Prefixes within a single Map-Request.  Please note that
   the steps above illustrate only the simplest scenario and that
   details for this and other scenarios are described later in the

   The reader may refer to [FLOW-EXAMPLES] for sample flows to
   illustrate the use of the PubSub specification.

1.1.  Scope of Applicability

   The PubSub procedure specified in this document is intended for use
   in contexts with controlled access to the Map-Server.  How a
   deployment controls access to a Map-Server is deployment specific and
   therefore out of the scope of this document.  However, the Map-
   Resolvers and Map-Servers need to be configured with the required
   information to ensure at least the following:

   1.  Map-Resolvers MUST verify that an xTR is allowed to (1) set the
       N-bit to 1 and (2) use the xTR-ID, Site-ID, and ITR-RLOCs
       included in a Map-Request.

   2.  Map-Servers MUST only accept subscription requests from Map-
       Resolvers that verify Map-Requests as previously described.

2.  Terminology and Requirements Notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

   The document uses the terms defined in Section 3 of [RFC9300].

3.  Deployment Requirements

   In addition to the general assumptions and expectations that
   [RFC9301] makes for LISP deployments, this document imposes the
   following deployment requirements:

   1.  A unique 128-bit xTR-ID (plus a 64-bit Site-ID) identifier is
       assigned to each xTR.

   2.  Map-Servers are configured to proxy Map-Replying (i.e., they are
       solicited to generate and send Map-Reply messages) for the
       mappings they are serving.

   3.  A security association (e.g., a PubSubKey) is required between
       the ITRs and the Map-Servers (see Section 7.1).

   If a requirement is not met, a subscription cannot be established,
   and the network will continue operating without this enhancement.
   The configuration of xTR-IDs and Site-IDs is out of the scope of this
   document.  The reader may refer to [LISP-YANG] for an example of how
   these identifiers can be provisioned to LISP nodes.

4.  Map-Request PubSub Additions

   Figure 1 shows the format of the updated Map-Request to support the
   PubSub functionality.  In particular, this document associates a
   meaning with one of the reserved bits (see Section 8).

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       |Type=1 |A|M|P|S|p|s|R|I|  Rsvd   |L|D|   IRC   | Record Count  |
       |                         Nonce . . .                           |
       |                         . . . Nonce                           |
       |         Source-EID-AFI        |   Source EID Address  ...     |
       |         ITR-RLOC-AFI 1        |    ITR-RLOC Address 1  ...    |
       |                              ...                              |
       |         ITR-RLOC-AFI n        |    ITR-RLOC Address n  ...    |
     / |N|   Reserved  | EID mask-len  |        EID-Prefix-AFI         |
   Rec +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     \ |                       EID-Prefix  ...                         |
       |                   Map-Reply Record  ...                       |
       |                                                               |
       +                                                               +
       |                                                               |
       +                            xTR-ID                             +
       |                                                               |
       +                                                               +
       |                                                               |
       |                                                               |
       +                           Site-ID                             +
       |                                                               |

        Figure 1: Map-Request with I-bit, N-bit, xTR-ID, and Site-ID

   The following is added to the Map-Request message defined in
   Section 5.2 of [RFC9301]:

   xTR-ID bit (I-bit):  This bit is set to 1 to indicate that 128-bit
      xTR-ID and 64-bit Site-ID fields are present in the Map-Request
      message.  For PubSub operation, an xTR MUST be configured with an
      xTR-ID and Site-ID, and it MUST set the I-bit to 1 and include its
      xTR-ID and Site-ID in the Map-Request messages it generates.  If
      the I-bit is set but the Site-ID and/or xTR-ID are not included, a
      receiver can detect the error because, after processing that last
      EID-Record, there are no bytes left from processing the message.
      In this case, the receiver SHOULD log a malformed Map-Request and
      MUST drop the message.

   Notification-Requested bit (N-bit):  The N-bit of an EID-Record is
      set to 1 to specify that the xTR wants to be notified of updates
      for that EID-Prefix.

   xTR-ID field:  If the I-bit is set, this field is added to the Map-
      Request message as shown in Figure 1, starting right after the
      final Record in the message (or the Map-Reply Record, if present).
      The xTR-ID is specified in Section 5.6 of [RFC9301].

   Site-ID field:  If the I-bit is set, this field is added to the Map-
      Request message as shown in Figure 1, following the xTR-ID field.
      The Site-ID is defined in Section 5.6 of [RFC9301].

5.  Mapping Request Subscribe Procedures

   The xTR subscribes for changes to a given EID-Prefix by sending a
   Map-Request to the Mapping System with the N-bit set on the EID-
   Record.  The xTR builds a Map-Request according to Section 5.3 of
   [RFC9301] and also does the following:

   1.  The xTR MUST set the I-bit to 1 and append its xTR-ID and Site-ID
       to the Map-Request.

   2.  The xTR MUST set the N-bit to 1 for the EID-Record to which the
       xTR wants to subscribe.

   3.  If the xTR has a nonce associated with the EID-Prefix, it MUST
       use this nonce increased by one in the Map-Request.  Otherwise,
       it generates a nonce as described in Section 5.2 of [RFC9301].
       It is RECOMMENDED that the xTR use persistent storage to keep
       nonce state.  If the xTR does not have persistent storage and
       does not have a nonce associated with the EID-Prefix, it MUST
       reset the nonce by using the procedure described in Section 7.1
       to successfully create a new security association with the Map-

   The Map-Request is forwarded to the appropriate Map-Server through
   the Mapping System.  This document does not assume that a Map-Server
   is pre-assigned to handle the subscription state for a given xTR.
   The Map-Server that receives the Map-Request will be the Map-Server
   responsible for notifying that specific xTR about future mapping
   changes for the subscribed mapping records.

   Upon receipt of the Map-Request, the Map-Server processes it as
   described in Section 8.3 of [RFC9301].  In addition, unless the xTR
   is using the procedure described in Section 7.1 to create a new
   security association, the Map-Server MUST verify that the nonce in
   the Map-Request is greater than the stored nonce (if any) associated
   with the xTR-ID (and EID-Prefix, when applicable).  Otherwise, the
   Map-Server MUST silently drop the Map-Request message and SHOULD log
   the event to record that a replay attack could have occurred.
   Furthermore, upon processing, for the EID-Record that has the N-bit
   set to 1, the Map-Server proceeds to add the xTR-ID contained in the
   Map-Request to the list of xTRs that have requested to be subscribed
   to that EID-Prefix.

   If an xTR-ID is successfully added to the list of subscribers for an
   EID-Prefix, the Map-Server MUST extract the nonce and ITR-RLOCs
   present in the Map-Request and store the association between the EID-
   Prefix, xTR-ID, ITR-RLOCs, and nonce.  Any state that is already
   present regarding ITR-RLOCs and/or nonce for the same xTR-ID MUST be
   overwritten.  When the LISP deployment has a single Map-Server, the
   Map-Server can be configured to keep a single nonce per xTR-ID for
   all EID-Prefixes (when used, this option MUST be enabled at the Map-
   Server and all xTRs).

   If the xTR-ID is added to the list, the Map-Server MUST send a Map-
   Notify message back to the xTR to acknowledge the successful
   subscription.  The Map-Server builds the Map-Notify according to
   Sections 5.5 and 5.7 of [RFC9301] with the following considerations:

   1.  The Map-Server MUST use the nonce from the Map-Request as the
       nonce for the Map-Notify.

   2.  The Map-Server MUST use its security association with the xTR
       (Section 7.1) to sign the authentication data of the Map-Notify.
       The xTR MUST use the security association to verify the received
       authentication data.

   3.  The Map-Server MUST send the Map-Notify to one of the ITR-RLOCs
       received in the Map-Request (which one is implementation

   As a reminder, the initial transmission and retransmission of Map-
   Notify messages by a Map-Server follow the procedure specified in
   Section 5.7 of [RFC9301].  Some state changes may trigger an overload
   that would impact, e.g., the outbound capacity of a Map-Server.  A
   similar problem may be experienced when a large number of state
   entries are simultaneously updated.  To prevent such phenomena, Map-
   Servers SHOULD be configured with policies to control the maximum
   number of subscriptions and also the pace of Map-Notify messages.
   For example, the Map-Server may be instructed to limit the resources
   that are dedicated to unsolicited Map-Notify messages to a small
   fraction (e.g., less than 10%) of its overall processing and
   forwarding capacity.  The exact details to characterize such policies
   are deployment and implementation specific.  Likewise, this document
   does not specify which notifications take precedence when these
   policies are enforced.

   When the xTR receives a Map-Notify with a nonce that matches one in
   the list of outstanding Map-Request messages sent with an N-bit set,
   it knows that the Map-Notify is to acknowledge a successful
   subscription.  The xTR processes this Map-Notify, as described in
   Section 5.7 of [RFC9301] and MUST use the Map-Notify to populate its
   Map-Cache with the returned EID-Prefix and RLOC-set.  As a reminder,
   following Section 5.7 of [RFC9301], the xTR has to send a Map-Notify-
   Ack back to the Map-Server.  If the Map-Server does not receive the
   Map-Notify-Ack after exhausting the Map-Notify retransmissions
   described in Section 5.7 of [RFC9301], the Map-Server can remove the
   subscription state.  If the Map-Server removes the subscription
   state, and absent explicit policy, it SHOULD notify the xTR by
   sending a single Map-Notify with the same nonce but with Loc-Count =
   0 (and Loc-AFI = 0) and ACT bits set to 5 "Drop/Auth-Failure".  It is
   OPTIONAL for the xTR to update its Map-Cache entry for the EID-Prefix
   (if any) based on this Map-Notify.  This message is specifically
   useful for cases where Map-Notifies are successfully received by an
   xTR, but the corresponding Map-Notify-Acks are lost when forwarded to
   the Map-Server. xTR implementations can use this signal to try to
   reinstall their subscription state instead of maintaining stale

   The subscription of an xTR-ID may fail for a number of reasons.  For
   example, it fails because of local configuration policies (such as
   accept and drop lists of subscribers), because the Map-Server has
   exhausted the resources to dedicate to the subscription of that EID-
   Prefix (e.g., the number of subscribers excess the capacity of the
   Map-Server), or because the xTR was not successful tried but was not
   successful in establishing a new security association (Section 7.1).

   If the subscription request fails, the Map-Server sends a Map-Reply
   to the originator of the Map-Request, as described in Section 8.3 of
   [RFC9301], with the following considerations:

   *  If the subscription request fails due to policy (e.g., for
      explicitly configured subscriptions, as described later in this
      section), the Map-Server MUST respond to the Map-Request with a
      Negative Map-Reply (Loc-Count = 0 and Loc-AFI = 0) with ACT bits
      set to 4 "Drop/Policy-Denied".

   *  If the subscription request fails due to authentication (e.g.,
      when a new security association is being established, as described
      in Section 7.1), the Map-Server MUST respond to the Map-Request
      with a Negative Map-Reply (Loc-Count = 0 and Loc-AFI = 0) with ACT
      bits set to 5 "Drop/Auth-Failure".

   *  If the subscription request fails due to any other reason, the
      Map-Server MUST follow Section 8.3 of [RFC9301] with no changes.

   The xTR processes any Map-Reply or Negative Map-Reply as specified in
   Section 8.1 of [RFC9301], with the following considerations: if the
   xTR receives a Negative Map-Reply with ACT bits set to 4 "Drop/
   Policy-Denied" or 5 "Drop/Auth-Failure" as a response to a
   subscription request, it is OPTIONAL for the xTR to update its Map-
   Cache entry for the EID-Prefix (if any).  If the subscription request
   fails (for whichever reason), it is up to the implementation of the
   xTR to try to subscribe again.

   If the Map-Server receives a subscription request for an EID-Prefix
   not present in the mapping database, it SHOULD follow the same logic
   described in Section 8.4 of [RFC9301] and create a temporary
   subscription state for the xTR-ID to the least specific prefix that
   both matches the original query and does not match any EID-Prefix
   known to exist in the LISP-capable infrastructure.  Alternatively,
   the Map-Server can determine that such a subscription request fails
   and send a Negative Map-Reply following Section 8.3 of [RFC9301].  In
   both cases, the TTL of the temporary subscription state or the
   Negative Map-Reply SHOULD be configurable, with a value of 15 minutes

   The subscription state can also be created explicitly by
   configuration at the Map-Server (possible when a pre-shared security
   association exists, see Section 7) using a variety of means that are
   outside the scope of this document.  If there is no nonce that can be
   used for the explicit subscription state at the time the explicit
   subscription is configured (e.g., from a different subscription
   already established with the same xTR when a single nonce is kept per
   xTR-ID), then both the xTR and Map-Server MUST be configured with the
   initial nonce.  RECOMMENDED to have a configuration option to enable
   (or disable) the xTR to accept publication information for EID-
   Prefixes that the xTR did not explicitly subscribe to.  By default,
   the xTR is allowed to modify explicitly configured subscription state
   following the procedures described in this section; however, this MAY
   be disabled at the Map-Server via configuration.  If the Map-Server
   is instructed to not allow xTRs to modify explicitly configured
   subscriptions, and an xTR tries to do so, this triggers a Negative
   Map-Reply with ACT bits set to 4 "Drop/Policy-Denied" as described
   earlier in this section.

   The following specifies the procedure to remove a subscription:

   *  If a valid Map-Request with the N-bit set to 1 only has one ITR-
      RLOC with AFI = 0 (i.e., Unknown Address), the Map-Server MUST
      remove the subscription state for that xTR-ID (unless this is
      disabled via configuration, see previous paragraph).

   *  If the subscription state is removed, the Map-Server MUST send a
      Map-Notify to the source RLOC of the Map-Request.

   *  If the subscription removal fails due to configuration, this
      triggers a Negative Map-Reply with ACT bits set to 4 "Drop/Policy-
      Denied" as described earlier in this section; the Map-Server sends
      the Negative Map-Reply to the source RLOC of the Map-Request in
      this case.

   *  Removing subscription state at the Map-Server can lead to replay
      attacks.  To soften this, the Map-Server SHOULD keep the last
      nonce seen per xTR-ID (and EID-Prefix, when applicable).

   *  If the Map-Server does not keep the last nonces seen, then the
      Map-Server MUST require the xTRs to subscribe using the procedure
      described in Section 7.1 to create a new security association with
      the Map-Server.

   If the Map-Server receives a Map-Request asking to remove a
   subscription for an EID-Prefix without subscription state for that
   xTR-ID and the EID-Prefix is covered by a less-specific EID-Prefix
   for which subscription state exists for the xTR-ID, the Map-Server
   SHOULD stop publishing updates about this more-specific EID-Prefix to
   that xTR until the xTR subscribes to the more-specific EID-Prefix.
   The same considerations regarding authentication, integrity
   protection, and nonce checks, which are described in this section and
   Section 7 for Map-Requests used to update subscription state, apply
   for Map-Requests used to remove subscription state.

   When an EID-Prefix is removed from the Map-Server (either when
   explicitly withdrawn or when its TTL expires), the Map-Server
   notifies its subscribers (if any) via a Map-Notify with TTL equal to

6.  Mapping Notification Publish Procedures

   The publish procedure is implemented via Map-Notify messages that the
   Map-Server sends to xTRs.  The xTRs acknowledge the receipt of Map-
   Notifies by sending Map-Notify-Ack messages back to the Map-Server.
   The complete mechanism works as follows:

   When a mapping stored in a Map-Server is updated (e.g., via a Map-
   Register from an ETR), the Map-Server MUST notify the subscribers of
   that mapping via sending Map-Notify messages with the most up to date
   mapping information.  If subscription state in the Map-Server exists
   for a less-specific EID-Prefix and a more-specific EID-Prefix is
   updated, then the Map-Notify is sent with the more-specific EID-
   Prefix mapping to the subscribers of the less-specific EID-Prefix
   mapping.  The Map-Notify message sent to each of the subscribers as a
   result of an update event follows the encoding and logic defined in
   Section 5.7 of [RFC9301] for Map-Notify, except for the following:

   1.  The Map-Notify MUST be sent to one of the ITR-RLOCs associated
       with the xTR-ID of the subscriber (which one is implementation

   2.  The Map-Server increments the nonce by one every time it sends a
       Map-Notify as publication to an xTR-ID for a particular EID-

   3.  The Map-Server MUST use its security association with the xTR to
       compute the authentication data of the Map-Notify.

   When the xTR receives a Map-Notify with an EID that is not local to
   the xTR, the xTR knows that the Map-Notify is to update an entry on
   its Map-Cache.  The xTR MUST keep track of the last nonce seen in a
   Map-Notify received as a publication from the Map-Server for the EID-
   Prefix.  When the LISP deployment has a single Map-Server, the xTR
   can be configured to keep track of a single nonce for all EID-
   Prefixes (when used, this option MUST be enabled at the Map-Server
   and all xTRs).  If a Map-Notify that is received as a publication has
   a nonce value that is not greater than the saved nonce, the xTR drops
   the Map-Notify message and logs the fact a replay attack could have
   occurred.  The same considerations discussed in Section 5.6 of
   [RFC9301] regarding Map-Register nonces apply here for Map-Notify

   The xTR processes the received Map-Notify as specified in Section 5.7
   of [RFC9301], with the following considerations:

   *  The xTR MUST use its security association with the Map-Server
      (Section 7.1) to validate the authentication data on the Map-

   *  The xTR MUST use the mapping information carried in the Map-Notify
      to update its internal Map-Cache.

   *  If after following Section 5.7 of [RFC9301] regarding
      retransmission of Map-Notify messages, the Map-Server has not
      received the Map-Notify-Ack, it can try sending the Map-Notify to
      a different ITR-RLOC for that xTR-ID.

   *  If the Map-Server tries all the ITR-RLOCs without receiving a
      response, it may stop trying to send the Map-Notify.

7.  Security Considerations

   Generic security considerations related to LISP control messages are
   discussed in Section 9 of [RFC9301].

   In the particular case of PubSub, cache poisoning via malicious Map-
   Notify messages is avoided by the use of nonce and the security
   association between the ITRs and the Map-Servers.

   It is RECOMMENDED to follow guidance from the last paragraph of
   Section 9 of [RFC9301] to ensure integrity protection of Map-Request
   messages (e.g., to prevent xTR-ID hijacking).

7.1.  Security Association between ITR and Map-Server

   Since Map-Notifies from the Map-Server to the ITR need to be
   authenticated, there is a need for a soft-state or hard-state
   security association (e.g., a PubSubKey) between the ITRs and the
   Map-Servers.  For some controlled deployments, it might be possible
   to have a shared PubSubKey (or set of keys) between the ITRs and the
   Map-Servers.  However, if pre-shared keys are not used in the
   deployment, LISP Security (LISP-SEC) [RFC9303] can be used as follows
   to create a security association between the ITR and the Map-Server.

   First, when the ITR is sending a Map-Request with the N-bit set as
   described in Section 5, the ITR also performs the steps described in
   Section 6.4 of [RFC9303].  The ITR can then generate a PubSubKey by
   deriving a key from the One-Time Key (OTK) and Map-Request's nonce as
   follows: PubSubKey = KDF(OTK + nonce), where KDF is the Key
   Derivation Function indicated by the OTK Wrapping ID.  If the OTK
   Wrapping ID equals NULL-KEY-WRAP-128, then the PubSubKey is the OTK.
   Note that, as opposed to the pre-shared PubSubKey, this generated
   PubSubKey is different per EID-Prefix to which an ITR subscribes
   (since the ITR will use a different OTK per Map-Request).

   When the Map-Server receives the Map-Request, it follows the
   procedure specified in Section 5 with the following considerations:
   the Map-Server MUST verify that the OTK has not been used before.  If
   the Map-Server verifies the OTK and cannot determine that the OTK has
   not been used before, the subscription request fails due to
   authentication, which triggers a Negative Map-Reply with ACT bits set
   to 5 "Drop/Auth-Failure", as described in Section 5.  The xTR might
   try again with a different OTK upon receipt of this Negative Map-
   Reply.  Note that a Map-Server implementation may decide not to keep
   track of all past OTKs and instead use some form of hash.  In that
   case, hash collisions are handled as if the OTK has been reused.
   Such an implementation needs to balance the hash length with the rate
   of collisions expected for the particular deployment; this is
   implementation specific.  If the Map-Server has to reply with a Map-
   Reply for any other reason (e.g., if PubSub is not supported or a
   subscription is not accepted), then it follows the normal LISP-SEC
   procedure described in Section 5.7 of [RFC9303].  No PubSubKey,
   security association, or subscription state is created when the Map-
   Server responds with any Map-Reply message.

   Otherwise, if the Map-Server has to reply with a Map-Notify (e.g.,
   due to the subscription being accepted) to a received Map-Request,
   the following extra steps take place:

   *  The Map-Server extracts the OTK and the OTK Wrapping ID from the
      LISP-SEC Encapsulated Control Message (ECM) Authentication Data.

   *  The Map-Server generates a PubSubKey by deriving a key from the
      OTK, as described before for the ITR.  This is the same PubSubKey
      derived at the ITR that is used to establish a security
      association between the ITR and the Map-Server.

   *  The PubSubKey can now be used to sign and authenticate any Map-
      Notify between the Map-Server and the ITR for the subscribed EID-
      Prefix.  This includes the Map-Notify sent as a confirmation to
      the subscription.  When the ITR wants to update the security
      association for that Map-Server and EID-Prefix, it once again
      follows the procedure described in this section.

   Note that if the Map-Server replies with a Map-Notify, none of the
   regular LISP-SEC steps regarding Map-Reply described in Section 5.7
   of [RFC9303] occur.

7.2.  DDoS Attack Mitigation

   If PubSub is deployed under the scope of applicability defined in
   Section 1.1, only known nodes can participate on the PubSub
   deployment.  DDoS attacks based on replayed messages by unknown nodes
   are avoided by the use of nonce and the security association between
   the ITRs and the Map-Servers.  Misbehaving known nodes may send
   massive subscription requests, which may lead to exhausting the
   resources of a Map-Server.  Furthermore, frequently changing the
   state of a subscription may also be considered as an attack vector.
   To mitigate such issues, Section 5.3 of [RFC9301] discusses rate-
   limiting Map-Requests, and Section 5.7 of [RFC9301] discusses rate-
   limiting Map-Notifies.  Note that when the Map-Notify rate-limit
   threshold is met for a particular xTR-ID, the Map-Server will discard
   additional subscription requests from that xTR-ID and will fall back
   to the behavior described in [RFC9301] when receiving a Map-Request
   from that xTR-ID (i.e., the Map-Server will send a Map-Reply).

8.  IANA Considerations

   IANA has assigned the following new bit from the "LISP Control Plane
   Header Bits: Map-Request" registry within the "Locator/ID Separation
   Protocol (LISP) Parameters" group of registries [IANA-LISP]:

    | Spec Name | IANA Name     | Bit      | Description | Reference |
    |           |               | Position |             |           |
    | I         | Map-Request-I | 11       | xTR-ID Bit  | RFC 9437  |

        Table 1: Addition to the Map-Request Header Bits Registry

   IANA has also created a new registry entitled "LISP Control Plane
   Header Bits: Map-Request-Record" within the "Locator/ID Separation
   Protocol (LISP) Parameters" group of registries [IANA-LISP].

   The initial content of this registry is shown in Table 2.

   |Spec| IANA Name     |Bit     | Description            | Reference |
   |Name|               |Position|                        |           |
   |N   | Map-Request-N |1       | Notification-Requested | RFC 9437  |
   |    |               |        | Bit                    |           |

       Table 2: Initial Content of LISP Control Plane Header Bits:
                       Map-Request-Record Registry

   The remaining bits (i.e., bit positions 2-8) are Unassigned.

   The policy for allocating new bits in this registry is "Specification
   Required" (Section 4.6 of [RFC8126]).

   Allocation requests are evaluated on the advice of one or more
   designated experts.  Designated experts should consider whether the
   proposed registration duplicates existing entries and whether the
   registration description is sufficiently detailed and fits the
   purpose of this registry.  These criteria are to be considered in
   addition to those provided in Section 4.6 of [RFC8126] (e.g., the
   proposed registration "must be documented in a permanent and readily
   available public specification").  The designated experts will either
   approve or deny the registration request, and communicate their
   decision to IANA.  Denials should include an explanation and, if
   applicable, suggestions as to how to make the request successful.

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,

   [RFC8126]  Cotton, M., Leiba, B., and T. Narten, "Guidelines for
              Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26,
              RFC 8126, DOI 10.17487/RFC8126, June 2017,

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC9300]  Farinacci, D., Fuller, V., Meyer, D., Lewis, D., and A.
              Cabellos, Ed., "The Locator/ID Separation Protocol
              (LISP)", RFC 9300, DOI 10.17487/RFC9300, October 2022,

   [RFC9301]  Farinacci, D., Maino, F., Fuller, V., and A. Cabellos,
              Ed., "Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP) Control
              Plane", RFC 9301, DOI 10.17487/RFC9301, October 2022,

   [RFC9303]  Maino, F., Ermagan, V., Cabellos, A., and D. Saucez,
              "Locator/ID Separation Protocol Security (LISP-SEC)",
              RFC 9303, DOI 10.17487/RFC9303, October 2022,

9.2.  Informative References

              Portoles, M., Ashtaputre, V., Maino, F., Moreno, V., and
              D. Farinacci, "LISP L2/L3 EID Mobility Using a Unified
              Control Plane", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-
              ietf-lisp-eid-mobility-12, 4 July 2023,

              Boucadair, M., "LISP PubSub Flow Examples", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-boucadair-lisp-pubsub-
              flow-examples-03, 10 February 2023,

   [GB-ATN]   Haindl, B., Lindner, M., Moreno, V., Portoles, M., Maino,
              F., and B. Venkatachalapathy, "Ground-Based LISP for the
              Aeronautical Telecommunications Network", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-haindl-lisp-gb-atn-09, 27
              March 2023, <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-

              IANA, "Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP) Parameters",

              Ermagan, V., Rodriguez-Natal, A., Coras, F., Moberg, C.,
              Rahman, R., Cabellos, A., and F. Maino, "LISP YANG Model",
              Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-lisp-yang-19,
              2 March 2023, <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/

   [RFC6835]  Farinacci, D. and D. Meyer, "The Locator/ID Separation
              Protocol Internet Groper (LIG)", RFC 6835,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6835, January 2013,

   [UBERLAY]  Moreno, V., Farinacci, D., Rodriguez-Natal, A., Portoles-
              Comeras, M., Maino, F., and S. Hooda, "Uberlay
              Interconnection of Multiple LISP overlays", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-moreno-lisp-uberlay-06, 28
              September 2022, <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/

Appendix A.  Sample PubSub Deployment Experiences

   Some LISP production networks have been running different forms of
   PubSub for some time.  The following subsections provide an inventory
   of some experience lessons from these deployments.

A.1.  PubSub as a Monitoring Tool

   Some LISP deployments are using PubSub as a way to monitor EID-
   Prefixes (particularly, EID-to-RLOC mappings).  To that aim, some
   LISP implementations have extended the LISP Internet Groper ('lig')
   [RFC6835] tool to use PubSub.  Such an extension is meant to support
   an interactive mode with 'lig' and to request subscription for the
   EID of interest.  If there are RLOC changes, the Map-Server sends a
   notification, and then the 'lig' client displays that change to the

A.2.  Mitigating Negative Map-Cache Entries

   Section 8.1 of [RFC9301] suggests two TTL values for Negative Map-
   Replies: either a 15-minute TTL (if the EID-Prefix does not exist) or
   a 1-minute TTL (if the prefix exists but has not been registered).
   While these values are based on the original operational experience
   of the LISP protocol designers, negative cache entries have two
   unintended effects that were observed in production.

   First, if the xTR keeps receiving traffic for a negative EID
   destination (i.e., an EID-Prefix with no RLOCs associated with it),
   it will try to resolve the destination again once the cached state
   expires, even if the state has not changed in the Map-Server.  It was
   observed in production that this is happening often in networks that
   have a significant amount of traffic addressed for outside of the
   LISP network.  This might result in excessive resolution signaling to
   keep retrieving the same state due to the cache expiring.  PubSub is
   used to relax TTL values and cache negative mapping entries for
   longer periods of time, avoiding unnecessary refreshes of these
   forwarding entries and drastically reducing signaling in these
   scenarios.  In general, a TTL-based schema is a "polling mechanism"
   that leads to more signaling where PubSub provides an "event-
   triggered mechanism" at the cost of state.

   Second, if the state does indeed change in the Map-Server, updates
   based on TTL timeouts might prevent the cached state at the xTR from
   being updated until the TTL expires.  This behavior was observed
   during configuration (or reconfiguration) periods on the network,
   where EID-Prefixes that are no longer negative do not receive the
   traffic yet, due to stale Map-Cache entries present in the network.
   With the activation of PubSub, stale caches can be updated as soon as
   the state changes.

A.3.  Improved Mobility Latency

   An improved convergence time was observed on the presence of mobility
   events on LISP networks running PubSub as compared with running LISP
   [RFC9301].  As described in Section of [EID-MOBILITY], LISP
   can rely on data-driven Solicit-Map-Requests (SMRs) to ensure
   eventual network convergence.  Generally, PubSub offers faster
   convergence due to (1) no need to wait for a data-triggered event and
   (2) less signaling as compared with the SMR-based flow.  Note that
   when a Map-Server running PubSub has to update a large number of
   subscribers at once (i.e., when a popular mapping is updated), SMR-
   based convergence may be faster for a small subset of the subscribers
   (those receiving PubSub updates last).  Deployment experience reveals
   that data-driven SMRs and PubSub mechanisms complement each other and
   provide a fast and resilient network infrastructure in the presence
   of mobility events.

   Furthermore, experience showed that not all LISP entities on the
   network need to implement PubSub for the network to get the benefits.
   In scenarios with significant traffic coming from outside of the LISP
   network, the experience showed that enabling PubSub in the border
   routers significantly improves mobility latency overall.  Even if
   edge xTRs do not implement PubSub, and traffic is exchanged between
   EID-Prefixes at the edge, xTRs still converge based on data-driven
   events and SMR-triggered updates.

A.4.  Enhanced Reachability with Dynamic Redistribution of Prefixes

   There is a need to interconnect LISP networks with other networks
   that might or might not run LISP.  Some of those scenarios are
   similar to the ones described in [GB-ATN] and [UBERLAY].  When
   connecting LISP to other networks, the experience revealed that in
   many deployments the point of interaction with the other domains is
   not the Mapping System but rather the border router of the LISP site.
   For those cases, the border router needs to be aware of the LISP
   prefixes to redistribute them to the other networks.  Over the years,
   different solutions have been used.

   First, Map-Servers were collocated with the border routers, but this
   was hard to scale since border routers scale at a different pace than
   Map-Servers.  Second, decoupled Map-Servers and border routers were
   used with static configuration of LISP entries on the border, which
   was problematic when modifications were made.  Third, a routing
   protocol (e.g., BGP) can be used to redistribute LISP prefixes from
   the Map-Servers to a border router, but this comes with some
   implications; in particular, the Map-Servers need to implement an
   additional protocol, which consumes resources and needs to be
   properly configured.  Therefore, once PubSub was available,
   deployments started to adapt it to enable border routers to
   dynamically learn the prefixes they need to redistribute without a
   need for extra protocols or extra configuration on the network.

   In other words, PubSub can be used to discover EID-Prefixes so they
   can be imported into other routing domains that do not use LISP.
   Similarly, PubSub can also be used to discover when EID-Prefixes need
   to be withdrawn from other routing domains.  That is, in a typical
   deployment, a border router will withdraw an EID-Prefix that it has
   been announcing to external routing domains if it receives a
   notification that the RLOC-set for that EID-Prefix is now empty.

A.5.  Better Serviceability

   EID-to-RLOC mappings can have a very long TTL, sometimes on the order
   of several hours.  Upon the expiry of that TTL, the xTR checks if
   these entries are being used and removes any entry that is not being
   used.  The problem with a very long Map-Cache TTL is that (in the
   absence of PubSub) if a mapping changes but is not being used, the
   cache remains but is stale.  This is due to no data traffic being
   sent to the old location to trigger an SMR-based Map-Cache update as
   described in Section of [EID-MOBILITY].  If the network
   operator runs a show command on a router to track the state of the
   Map-Cache, the router will display multiple entries waiting to expire
   but with stale RLOC information.  This might be confusing for
   operators sometimes, particularly when they are debugging problems.
   With PubSub, the Map-Cache is updated with the correct RLOC
   information, even when it is not being used or waiting to expire,
   which helps with debugging.


   We would like to thank Marc Portoles, Balaji Venkatachalapathy,
   Bernhard Haindl, Luigi Iannone, and Padma Pillay-Esnault for their
   great suggestions and help regarding this document.

   Many thanks to Alvaro Retana for the careful AD review.

   Thanks to Chris M. Lonvick for the security directorate review, Al
   Morton for the OPS-DIR review, Roni Even for the Gen-ART review, Mike
   McBride for the rtg-dir review, Magnus Westerlund for the tsv
   directorate review, and Sheng Jiang for the int-dir review.

   Thanks to John Scudder, Erik Kline, Lars Eggert, Warren Kumari,
   Martin Duke, Murray Kucherawy, Éric Vyncke, Robert Wilton,
   Zaheduzzaman Sarker, and Roman Danyliw for the IESG review.

   This work was partly funded by the ANR LISP-Lab project #ANR-
   13-INFR-009 <https://anr.fr/Projet-ANR-13-INFR-0009>.


   Dino Farinacci
   San Jose, CA
   United States of America
   Email: farinacci@gmail.com

   Johnson Leong
   Email: johnsonleong@gmail.com

   Fabio Maino
   San Jose, CA
   United States of America
   Email: fmaino@cisco.com

   Christian Jacquenet
   Email: christian.jacquenet@orange.com

   Stefano Secci
   Email: stefano.secci@cnam.fr

Authors' Addresses

   Alberto Rodriguez-Natal
   Email: natal@cisco.com

   Vina Ermagan
   United States of America
   Email: ermagan@gmail.com

   Albert Cabellos
   Email: acabello@ac.upc.edu

   Sharon Barkai
   Email: sharon.barkai@getnexar.com

   Mohamed Boucadair
   Email: mohamed.boucadair@orange.com