Internet DRAFT - draft-xia-icn-multiservtag



ICN Working Group                                               Xia Yong
INTERNET-DRAFT                                               China SARFT
Intended Status: Informational                                   S. Duan
Expires: Apr 30, 2018                                        China CAICT
                                                                 Shu Liu
                                                             China CAICT
                                                            Oct 30, 2017

       the Consideration for the Application of Multi-Service Tag


   According to the significant concepts and research challenges
   described in RFC7927, we think that the multi-service tag technology
   is a effective name mechanism for video contents in ICN. Because the
   video traffic is the primary traffic transferred in the Internet, it
   will tremendously promote the current Internet architecture to the
   ICN architecture that the name mechanism for the video contents is
   established. This document discusses the consideration for the design
   of multi-service tag in ICN and how to use the multi-service tag
   technology to establish the name mechanism for the video contents.
   This document also gives the typical cases which use the above name
   mechanism to improve the content distribution efficiency and cache
   system efficiency.

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Table of Contents

   1  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2  Brief background  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3  Analysis of the limitation of current network . . . . . . . . .  4
   4  Name mechanism for the video contents in ICN  . . . . . . . . .  5
   5  Design of multi-service tag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     5.1 the design rules of multi-service tag  . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     5.2 the preliminary design of multi-service tag  . . . . . . . .  6
   6 System of multi-service tag  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   7 Design of routing and route resolution for the multi-service
     tag  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   8  Some application cases  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     8.1  content resource sharing across ISP network . . . . . . . .  8
     8.2  cache according to the content naming information . . . . .  8
   9  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   10  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   11  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   12  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     12.1  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10


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1  Introduction

   Now the network traffic presents a rapid increase trend, the
   popularization of network video and the diversified viewing model
   modes support watch video in anytime and anywhere,which also results
   in the increase of network traffic. The network video Apps must
   provide terrific Quality of experience(QoE). These trends represent a
   developing direction of future networks. Recognition and handling of
   the application traffic is a key factor for network operation. Each
   network application uses different protocol and is deployed by
   different ISP, which incompletely  depends on the network operaters.
   The method of the recognition of traffic and applications uses the
   fuzzy heuristic modes which are based on the port scope and key
   information of the traffic and are similar with the DPI technology,
   but this series of technologies have some limitations. The heuristic
   methods can't effectively solve the problem of traffic recognition
   because they can't keep up with the synchronization update of
   application characteristics. The traffic recognition schemes based on
   the port scope detection face the great challenge because of enormous
   amount of ports which are discontinuous, especially for http traffic,
   the http traffic usually use 80 or 8080 port, so the content in http
   traffic is difficult to be identified accurately. Due to the
   encryption transmission of more and more traffic, these lead to the
   great increase of DFI/DPI calculated amount and make these two
   technologies be faced with invalidation. IP tunneling technology
   makes the operator's network more complex. So we need a new
   technology which can rapidly and uniquely recognize the traffic based
   on its characteristics without resolve the whole package.

   The purpose of this document is to devise a mechanism allowing ICN
   forwarders, consumers, producers and other ICN nodes to name content
   identify content find content and share content.

2  Brief background

   Now vast Internet video resources are concentrated in minority large
   operators. If other operator hope to operate the Internet video, they
   must buy the Internet traffics from the minority large operators.
   therefore inter-network settlement is a big cost for the Internet
   video operation and maybe over a half for the small operators. In
   order to reduce the cost, the small operators spend lots of
   expenditure to establish cache or CDN and thus each small operator
   has many caches and CDN. These caches and CDN distribute in the
   network just like some islands which stored data is repetitive for
   more than 90 percent, thus the operation effect isn't desired and the

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   maintain cost is high. From the view of resource scheduling
   mechanism, the content schedule relies on IP address under current
   technique system, but many small operators don't have enough public
   network IP address which leads to scheduling failure for OTT video
   services though they have own caches and CDN.

   So the operators imminently hope a technical solution to help
   integrating the decentralized and repetitive content in the network
   and get rid of the limiting condition of IP address. We think that
   the name mechanism of Multi-Service Tag and ICN can effectively
   resolve this problem. We plan to establish an ICN network in ICN-as-
   an-overlay mode over different operators' network, get through the
   content switching channels between different small operators and
   realize unified schedule and sharing for the video resources through
   the name mechanism of Multi-Service Tag. For the Implementation,
   different small operators' networks distribute around ICN network
   like islands and have sole interface to ICN. This interface collects
   the information of content resource URL and its attributes and then
   generate only name for the content according to some rules and
   establish the mapping table between multi-service tag and URL for
   content addressing. We broadcast the content addressing based mapping
   tables to all ISPs through the ICN network and then all the operators
   connecting the ICN will know the content distribution all over the
   network, they can integrate the storage fragmentization and reduce
   the content repetitive storage, the large amount of content can be
   obtained by ICN sharing and decrease the cost spent on the Internet
   traffic purchase from the large operators.

3  Analysis of the limitation of current network

   The traffic recognition ways based on IP address pool face
   difficulties. Because IP address is of large amount, dynamic,
   proprietary or private. According to the CDN protocol (RFC 6770), the
   content can be transferred to different CDN and this makes it
   impossible to track the content among different CDN in terms of its
   IP address. Though the traffic recognition based on IP address is
   possible in some scenes, it's impossible to exactly identify every
   flow. Because the same port is maybe repetitively used by different 
   application, the traffic recognition based on port may lead the wrong
   results. DFI/DPI may lose efficacy or become very complicated with
   the more and more encrypted traffic in order to analyze the content
   contained by the traffic. A traffic flow of an application will end
   at user terminal through different network routes and this will
   affect the analysis of the traffic flow. There are no unified
   standards for traffic recognition and analysis and it will lead to
   different analysis results for the same traffic flow due to the

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   analysis ability and implementation ways. The traffic analysis will
   parse the payload of the packages, thus it will affect the package
   processing efficiency which need extra process, and the ever-
   increasing new protocols also affect the DFI/DPI devices efficiency.
   The flow tag is defined in RFC6437 and it only applies in IPv6
   protocols. The flow tag changes along with the specific traffic flow
   and just like port. The flow tag can't identify the traffic flow
   independently and it must be used with source/destination IP
   addresses together. Because the flow tag is fixed in IPv6 header, it
   can identified easily, but it lacks of protect mechanism and there is
   no mechanism verifying its integrity.

   In general, the current traffic recognition ways is limited in the
   analysis of traffic flows, they can't provide effective feedback
   data, so they can't support the self-adaptive network processing
   capability established by the operators.

4  Name mechanism for the video contents in ICN

   The ICN includes many Named Data Object (NDO) and it turns the
   current "end host" network framework into "named information"
   framework. In ICN, NDO is the core concept and independent of IP
   address,which is the base of ICN network communication. The video
   traffic is the highest percentage traffic in the Internet traffics.
   As the network video gradually changes from standard definition video
   to high definition and ultra HD video. Some new video applications
   are rapidly popularized, such as short video application, video
   social contact application and some related video applications, and
   the video traffic is constantly growing. So it's necessary that the
   video content must be regarded as a special NDO class to have
   specialized design and consideration. The network video transmission
   mostly uses slice transmission mechanism such as HLS and DASM
   protocol. Based on the NDO granularity and transmission efficiency,
   we suggest that the NDO design will use a whole video file or video
   stream as a data unit and not take a slice as a NDO.

5  Design of multi-service tag

5.1 the design rules of multi-service tag

   The design scheme of multi-service tag is a scheme just like URI
   hierarchy naming scheme and its design follows the following

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      a) no relationship with IP address or port number;

      b) one-to-one correspondence to the transferred content;

      c) stable in a traffic flow lifecycle;

      d) easily obtained and handled by the network operator;

      e) the tag can be recognized by the network, the network can draw
   up a strategy and adaptively transfer the content according to the
   tag information;

      f) confidence mechanism against tamper-proofing;

      g) decrease the complexity of network management.

5.2 the preliminary design of multi-service tag

   Here we give a simple and preliminary design of multi-service tag,
   the scheme is not mature and may be changed along with the
   development of the new technologies.

   The format of multi-service tag is as following:

   xlables = base64( CID + content summary + type + random number +
   signature )

   xlables: fixed string which identifies tags and encrypts the
   following information using base64.

   CID: the identity of CP which is distributed by the tag service
   system in a unified way.

   content summary: the summary is extracted according to the file
   content and corresponding to the file and actually is file hash. This
   field can be used to identify the same cached content.

   type: the kinds of the transferred file, such as video, picture,

   random number: it provides the signature identity

   signature: it's produced according to the CID+content
   summary+type+file size+[code rate]+timestamp+random number and used
   to verify the validity of the tag.


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6 System of multi-service tag

   The system of multi-service tag is mainly made up by two function

   1)generating modular: this modular is deployed at the network edge
   and interfaces with the operators. Its function is to generate multi-
   service tags aimed at the specific content and establish binding
   relationship between the video content and multi-service tag. This
   modular will establish matchup relation between the multi-service tag
   and video content actual store address in the operator network, and
   send this matchup information to the assembly modular.

   2)assembly modular: this modular is deployed at the network center
   and responsible for collecting the matchup information between the
   multi-service tag and video content storage location which is sent by
   the generating modular. This modular will establish the whole network
   NDO routing table by collecting the multi-service tag and content
   storage address information all over the whole network and realize
   the content inquiry service and routing resolution service according
   naming information.

7 Design of routing and route resolution for the multi-service tag

   The design of routing and route resolution for the multi-service tag
   will adopt RFC7927 Look-By-Name Routing LBNR scheme which can fully
   use the current network infrastructure.

   1) The multi-service tag system will interface with the operator's
   CDN or cache system firstly, then the generating modular will scan
   the operator's content resource, establish the binding relationship
   between content resource and multi-service tag, generate the mapping
   relation for the network address and multi-service tag, send this
   information to the assembly modular and form the mapping relation
   table for the network address and multi-service tag in the assembly

   2) When the operator receives the user inquiry, it will extract the
   inquired naming information-multi-service tag through filter
   mechanism and send it to the assembly modular.

   3) The assembly modular find the final address information related
   with the naming information through the mapping relation table of the
   network address and multi-service tag, and send this information to
   the user.

   4) The user acquires the content through the network address.

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8  Some application cases

8.1  content resource sharing across ISP network

   The Internet video transmission usually uses the CDN technology and
   cache technology to provide service for users and the CP will deploy
   the CDN or cache nodes according to the user distribution in the
   operator network. In order to guarantee QoE, the CP will deploy CDN
   nodes with full resource in the network center and CDN nodes with hot
   resource at the network edge which usually locate in the operator's
   premises network. Each premises network operator has its own IP
   address field and the user's IP address is allocated by the premises
   network operator. In the current IP network, the CP can find the
   nearest resource only according to the IP address in the inquiry and
   then schedule the corresponding CDN node to serve the user, if the
   edge CDN node has no the resource asked by the user, the CP will haul
   the user inquiry back to the center CDN nodes with full resource and
   schedule the corresponding resource to serve the user, and this can
   easily form the network congestion of ISP haul-back route and
   increase the network delay. Though the different ISP premises
   networks have routing reachability, the content resource can't be
   sharing among different IPS.

   Under the video scheduling mechanism based on the IP address, IP
   address will fragment the network resource and the same content will
   have many IP address or URL, thus CP or ISP have to use large storage
   resource to deploy the same hot content. IP address and URL are all
   the network address information independent of the content and the
   operator can't share the content through the address information.

   In ICN, we can use the multi-service tag naming scheme to realize the
   content resource sharing among ISPs and form larger content resource
   sharing pool, thus all user can acquire the content in the pool and
   it breaks the IP-ISP resource closed mechanism. The multi-service tag
   assembly modular can acquire all ISP network resource information and
   the user can use this information to find the relevant content.

8.2  cache according to the content naming information

   The cache technology is always one of the main technological means
   for decreasing inter-network settlement charge and enhancing QoE. The
   maximal challenge which the traditional cache technology faces is

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   that the repetitive contents waste the cache resource. The core
   technology of the traditional cache is to obtain URL contents and
   store them locally by monitoring the hot program's URLs through DPI.
   But the URL is not stable and the same contents may have different
   URLs. Though we can use DPI to decode the content and acquire partial
   content characteristics to compare, it has major limitations at
   decreasing the repetitive contents and greatly increases the
   computation complexity, what is more, the begin of the content is
   often advertisement or station caption and this makes content
   comparison different to work well. The multi-service tag contains the
   attribute information of carried content which is one-to-one
   correspondence to the content, then the cache system can use the tag
   as the base of comparison so as to quickly discover the repetitive
   contents and raise cache efficiency.

9  Security Considerations


10  IANA Considerations

   There is no IANA action in this document.

11  Acknowledgements


12  References

12.1  Normative References

              [RFC]7927, D. Kutscher, S., "Information-Centric
              Networking (ICN) Research Challenges", [RFC]7927, July
              2016, <>


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Authors' Addresses

   Yong Xia
   China SARFT

   Shihui Duan
   China Academy of Telecommunication Research of MIIT

   Shu Liu
   China Academy of Telecommunication Research of MIIT

   Rachel Huang

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