Internet DRAFT - draft-wagner-dynamic-policy


  Internet Draft                         D. Wagner (Fraunhofer),
                                         I. Miloucheva (Fraunhofer), 
                                         Ch. Niephaus (Fraunhofer),  
                                         A. Flitzikowski (UAM), 
                                         M. Wachowiak (ITTI),
                                         P.A. Gutierrez (Telefonica)
                                         D. Hetzer (Media Broadcast GmbH)

    Expires: April 30, 2009                              November 30, 2008

     Dynamic policy specification and management for heterogeneous 
                        Internet environment

   Status of this Memo 

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   This document presents requirements and architecture for dynamic 
   user-centric Quality of Service (QoS) policy specification and
   management in heterogeneous Internet environments.
   The hierarchical policy specification is based on mapping and 
   refinement of policies at business, intermediate, operational 
   and configuration level. The QoS policy request are selected for
   heterogeneous network environment considering the restrictions 
   of the users as specified in SLAs and identity management 

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   The user is enabled to require QoS for specific network
   and infrastructure selections, as well as to optimise the network
   selection based on given criteria.
   The dynamic policy specification and management facilities for 
   heterogeneous Internet infrastructures is based on policy management  
   interfaces for different actors (users, service providers, network 
   operators), usage of ontologies for policy mapping and  
   consistency check,  flexible network selection for QoS policy 
   definition, as well as policy data mining system including 
   repositories for policies at different levels and 
   their mapping.

   Particular integration of the discussed facilities is 
   performed in the framework of the NETQOS policy management system.

   Table of Contents

   1.   Introduction................................................  3
   2.   Terminology used in this document...........................  4
   3.   QoS Policy specification and interfaces  ...................  5
   3.1. Requirements for dynamic QoS policy specification by 
        different actors ...........................................  5
   3.2. QoS policy framework for heterogeneous environment .........  6
   3.3. Hierarchical policy mapping ................................  7
   4.   Policy data mining .........................................  8
   5.   Integration of dynamic QoS policy specification and 
        management in NETQOS ....................................... 10  
   6.   References.................................................. 13
   7.   Author's Addresses.......................................... 13
   8.   Intellectual Property Statement............................. 14
   9.   Full Copyright Statement..................................... 15

   1. Introduction
   In this document requirements and facilities for dynamic QOS policy 
   specification and management for different policy actors (users, service 
   providers, network operators) for heterogeneous Internet environment
   are discussed. These facilities are particularly integrated in the 
   NETQOS QoS policy management system [1].

   The QoS policy specification framework is based on business policy 
   specifications and their hierarchical refinement to intermediate, 
   operational and configuration policies [2].  
   Business QoS policies for heterogeneous network environment enable 
   the users to configure dynamically QoS mechanisms at transport and 

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   network entities according to their QoS and network preferences 
   considering technology and vendor dependent capabilities of the 
   entities [3].

   The QoS policy requests are mapped to policies considering the 
   heterogeneous network environment,  network restrictions of 
   the users derived by SLAs and identity management, as well as 
   strategies for selection of specific networks and optimization of 
   network selection based on given criteria.

   The QoS policy specification and management framework includes:
   - Policy management interfaces for different kinds of actors to specify 
     dynamically QoS policies for heterogeneous network considering 
     SLA restrictions and identity management interactions;
   - Repositories for policy data mining allowing storage and refinement
     of business policies to intermediate and operational policy 
     specifications for heterogeneous Internet environment.

   The QoS policy framework for heterogeneous Internet environment
   considers the current IETF standardisations, e.g. Policy Core 
   Information Model (PCIM) [4], the Common Information Model (CIM) [5], 
   QoS Policy Information Model (QPIM) [6] and QoS data path
   mechanisms [7]. 
   The policies for heterogeneous Internet environment allow dynamic 
   selection of application QoS levels by the actors and 
   mapping of selected QoS to the operational QoS mechanisms of 
   heterogeneous networks considering different strategies for network 
   2. Terminology used in this document 
   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", 
   this document are to be interpreted as described in [8].
   Abbreviations used in the following text:

   APM        - Actor Preference Manager
   POLD       - Policy Descriptor   
   APA        - Automated Policy Adaptor
   MoMe       - Monitoring and Measurement infrastructure
   NetAgent   - Component for automated configuration of mechanisms at 
                network devices
   TransAgent - Component for policy configuration of mechanisms at 
                transport entities.
   CM         - Context Manager monitoring tool interactions
   HQPIM      - Heterogeneous networks QoS policy information model     
   PCIM       - Core Information Model
   QPIM       - QoS Policy Information Model

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   SLA	      - Service Level Agreement
   QoS        - Quality of Service
   GUI        - Graphical User Interface

   This Draft considers the terminology for Policy-based management [9] 
   and extends it to specify QoS policy management framework and 
   interaction for heterogeneous network environment. 

   Discussed framework is related the QoS policy information model for 
   heterogeneous network environment (HQPIM) [3]. 

   3. Policy management interfaces
   3.1. Requirements for dynamic QoS Policy specification by different

   Dynamic specification of QoS policies is required for several kinds of
   actors (network operators, service providers, users) to define and 
   automatically configure in real-time manner their specific preferences
   for QoS and resources in heterogeneous Internet infrastructures 
   according their needs [2], [3].

   The QoS policy management interfaces allow the policy specification
   by actors (users, service providers, network operators) for specific  
   network contexts and Internet infrastructures.  
   The policies can be specified to support optimal and cost efficient 
   resource usage in heterogeneous Internet environment, as well as 
   enhanced QoS guarantees according to business QoS preferences of 
   the particular actors for particular network infrastructures. 
   The QoS policy specification in heterogeneous Internet environment 
   depends on the SLAs and the restrictions of the actors for service 
   access on the particular networks.   
   These restrictions are obtained considering SLAs and identity 
   management facilities, e.g. SLA and identity repositories.

   The dynamic QoS policy specification and provisioning depends on the 
   kind of identity management architecture and the regulations between 
   different providers for QoS policy specification in heterogeneous 
   Internet environment [10]. Identity management in heterogeneous 
   Internet is based on different strategies, such as Gateway (Key-store),
   Passport (Wallet Garden), Single-Sign-On, federative and User centric
   identity management strategies. 
   Dependent on the requirements of the policy actors (users and 
   providers), the QoS provisioning for the particular actors and 
   applications is automatically configured and adapted for the selected
   network infrastructure considering actor and SLAs restrictions.
   The basic interactions for dynamic QoS policy specification are shown 
   in figure 1:

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   +--------------+ +------------+  +-------------------------+
   | Service Level| | Identity   |  | QoS Policy management   |
   | Agreements   | | Management |--| Interfaces for actors   |
   +--------------+ +------------+  +-------------------------+
        |              |            | Consistency check       |
        |         +--------------+  |-------------------------+
        |         | Actor        |  |SLA/Identity restrictions| 
        |         | restrictions |  |-------------------------| 
   +------------+ +--------------+  |	    QoS policy        |
   |Actor QOS   |                   |        request          |
   | policy     |                   |-------------------------|
   | data base  |                   |   Preferences for       |
   +------------+                   |     network             |
        |                           |   environment           |
   +--------------+                 +-------------------------+
   | Intermediate |                 |  Policy storage and     |
   | policy       |-----------------|    access               |
   | repository   |                 +-------------------------+
   +--------------+                             |
        |                     +---------------------------------+ 
   +---------------+          | Learning component for usage    |
   | Operational & |          | and optimisation of             |
   | configuration |----------| heterogeneous Internet networks |
   | policies      |          | networks                        |
   +---------------+          +---------------------------------+

   Figure 1: Interfaces for dynamic QoS policy specification by 
             different actors and their interactions

   In the identity enabled policy management for heterogeneous networks,
   the policy actor (user, customer, service provider) can define his 
   own policies for QoS of the application and preferred usage of 

   Dependent on the specific QoS management scenario, the user can set 
   his preferences for specific QoS guarantee level of applications at
   different networks, bandwidth reservation options [5], selection of
   QoS measurement facilities for applications and networks dependent on 
   the network [2].

   The policies of the service providers and network operators are used
   to offer default usage for the users (customers), but are not 
   obligatory for the users.

   Identity management for policy actors involves the restrictions of the
   user access based  on the related SLAs, services and policies of the 

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   Benefits of the identity enabled QoS policy management 
   architecture for more efficient QoS policy support in heterogeneous 
   Internet environment are:

   - Restricted access based on identity and SLA information;
   - Consideration of identity information for QoS policy specification;
   - More efficient data mining considering SLAs, identity, accounting 
     and other policy parameter descriptions of the actors;
   - Automated analysis of policies, SLAs and dependencies of different 
   - Optimisation of QoS policy decisions based on analysis of actor policy 

   The business policies of the actors are related to the SLA rules,
   which restrictions are taken into consideration, when the user 
   enters or changes his own QoS policies for the applications in 
   the preferred  network environment.  
   Policy data mining for dynamic policy management includes related
   repositories (for business, intermediate and operational policies), 
   based on which it is possible in dynamic manner to 
   update QoS policy specifications of the users for given networks.
   This is required in case that SLAs or access rights (identity 
   management policies) of the policy actors change.

   Provisioning of complex QoS policies for optimisation of QoS in 
   heterogeneous Internet environment involves the interaction with
   learning component for usage and optimisation of heterogeneous networks,
   which are offered to the actors dependent on their SLAs.

   3.2. Policy framework for heterogeneous network environment

   In the converged Internet infrastructures, there is a requirement 
   to combine QoS policies with strategies for network selection for
   applications. QoS policies for heterogeneous networks are defined
   in order to set dynamically QoS requirements for applications for
   preferred networks dependent on the capabilities of selected networks
   and services. 
   QoS policies for heterogeneous networks can be used for scenarios, 
   including mobility and roaming, multiple path routing, change of network 
   and traffic redirection.

   The QoS policy control for heterogeneous network environment can be 
   based on user, application provider and operator centric policies. 
   These policies can interact dependent on SLA and policy actor
   dependencies in order to control:
    - which QoS level of the application is specified for a given network;
    - which QoS and networks are preferred for the application execution. 

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              |  Application QoS Request of   |
              |  a policy actor               |
        |                  |             |                     |
    +-----------+ +-----------+ +-----------------+ +---------------------+
    | Specific  | | Global    | | Optimal network | |Selection of network | 
    | network   | | selection | | selection       | |with special purpose |
    | selection | |           | | based on        | |(DVB return channel, |
    |           | |           | | given criteria  | | sensor, etc)        |
    +-----------+ +-----------+ +-----------------+ +---------------------+

    Figure 2: Actor's QoS policy requests for heterogeneous environment 

   The QoS policy specification is based on network selection by the 
   policy actors. In heterogeneous network environment, the policy actor
   can select:  
   - QoS for specific network or set of networks, for which the application
     will be supported at the required QOS level;
   - Qos policy request considering all networks, which can be used by the 
     policy actor (global selection);  
   - QoS policy request for the application is applied for a dynamically 
     selected network based on specific preference, such as cost efficiency, 
     maximum resource availability. For the selected network, the QoS policy
     request for the application will be performed.
   - Selection of special purpose network means for instance selection of 
     bidirectional wireless network for return channel emulation, or 
     selection of network with specific capabilities (for instance sensor) 
     for appropriate application.  

   3.3. Hierarchical policy mapping 
   For automated QoS policy provisioning, the QoS policies are defined
   based on refinement in a hierarchical way considering abstraction

    -   Business (high-level or actor-oriented policies),
    -   Intermediate QoS policies (unified policy presentations), 
    -   Operational  (technology dependent QoS mechanisms of managed 
    -   Configuration (vendor and system oriented QoS mechanisms 
        of managed entities).

   The policy hierarchy for heterogeneous Internet environment deployed 
   in NETQOS [1], [2] is shown in fig.3:

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   Policy Hierarchy                      Policy specification
   +-----------------+                   Actor related QoS request
   | Business policy |   ............... for application on 
   +-----------------+                   preferred networks   
          |                              related to SLA  
   | Intermediate policy | ............. Unified QoS and network
   +---------------------+               requirement description      
          |           |                  for actors applications 
          v           v                  on given network context
   +-------------+ +-------------+
   | Operational | | Operational | ..... QoS policy for concrete       
   | policy      | | policy      |        connections / flows 
   +-------------+ +-------------+
          |           |
          v           v
   +---------------+ +--------------+ .. Configuration policy 
   | Configuration | |Configuration |    for vendor specific QoS 
   | policy        | | policy       |    mechanisms
   +---------------+ +--------------+    at managed entities

   Figure 3: Hierarchical QoS policy refinement

   The QoS policies on business level are concise specifications of the 
   QoS goals of the particular actors for preferred networks and 
   are related to the SLA objectives. 
   The business policies are transformed to the unified (intermediate) 
   policy presentation. Intermediate policies are based on a unified 
   presentation of QoS mechanisms and parameters using 
   "condition and action" paradigm (see, RFC 3644) considering
   heterogeneous networks.  
   The operational policies expressed in XACML (eXtensible 
   Access Control Markup Language) [11] specify QoS mechanisms for
   control the treatment of the packets to/from the end-user for a 
   specific flow dependent on the application class (content delivery, 
   streaming, Voice over IP ) at concrete Internet infrastructure.
   The configuration policies are concrete descriptions for QoS of actor 
   applications for heterogeneous entities at transport and network level, 
   for instance CLI (Command Line Interface) batches of commands for 
   the vendor dependent router QoS implementations (e.g. Cisco, Juniper or 

   4. Policy data mining

   The policy data mining is aimed at storage, mapping and access of QoS 
   policies at different levels of refinement, in order to be used for 
   dynamic QoS policy management.

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   The policies are mapped between the different levels using policy 
   repositories storing the policies and their relationships. 
   There are business, intermediate and operational repositories, which 
   are used for the tasks of QoS policy specification, policy decision 
   and adaptation.
   The policy repositories have different roles based on their usage for
   different tasks for automated QoS management in heterogeneous 
   Internet environment. 
   In addition, there are knowledge and directory 
   repositories, which are used by the policy data mining for SLA, network
   topology, actors and identity descriptions.
   The SLA rules specify generic requirements for the user policy 
   mechanisms and parameters, such as network resource access permissions
   and QoS parameter thresholds. 

   For the policy parameter specification and mapping between the 
   parameters of policy repositories at different level, 
   ontologies [12] and knowledge data bases are used. Ontology provides 
   also the semantic mapping between the data in the policy repositories 
   and knowledge data bases (e.g. directory services). 

          +--------------------------------------> Links to Ontology,
          |               |              |        directory services & 
          |               |              |        knowledge data bases 
    +-----------+   +-----------+   +-----------+            |
    | Business  |...| Business  |...| Business  |            V
    | policy    |   | policy    |   | policy    |   +----------------+
    | repository|   | repository|   | repository|   | SLA, services  |
    +-----------+   +-----------+   +-----------+   | ---------------|
              |              |            |         | identity  decsr|
              |              |            |         +----------------+
              |    +------------------------+       | QoS policy     |
              -----| Intermediate data base |------>| Ontology       |
                   +------------------------+       +----------------+
              |                                    |
     +------------------------+   +------------------------+
     | operational/           |   | operational/           |
     | configuration policies |...| configuration policies |
     | for managed entity     |   | for managed entity     |
     +------------------------+   +------------------------+

   Figure 4: Repositories and tasks for QoS policy management in 
           heterogeneous Internet environment 
   The  policy management interfaces of the user stores the QoS
   policies in the business QoS policy repository. Usually, 
   the business policy repositories are personalised and stored   

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   locally in respect to the actors, in order to be accessed 
   efficiently by the policy management interfaces. The SLA rules, QoS
   policies on different level of refinement and identity specifications
   of actors are stored in appropriate data bases, which are accessed 
   during the policy specification. 

   This allows the consistency check of selected QoS requests and 
   network environments for applications.
   Where the business policies can be stored locally for more 
   efficient processing and integration with the actor oriented 
   policy management interfaces, the intermediate policy repository 
   is usually found on a policy server. This allows the intermediate
   policies to be accessed and maintained by the policy 
   management system in a more efficient way.

   5. Dynamic QoS policy specification and management in NETQOS system  
   heterogeneous environment

   Dynamic QoS policy specification in NETQOS is actor and scenario based. 
   The dynamic policy specification is implemented in NETQOS based on 
   the following components: 
   - Actor Preference Manager (APM) for actor and scenario oriented 
     business level QoS policy specification;
   - Policy Description and Management (POLD) supporting unified policy 
     access / storage for different QoS policy provisioning components.

   APM  interfaces allows that different kinds of users, such as mobile 
   and fixed users, dependent on their profile and dependencies store
   dynamically policies in the intermediate policy repository. 
   Dependent on the QoS management goals of the actors, the SLAs and
   the particular scenario, the business level QoS policies for 
   heterogeneous network environment allow selection of QoS parameters 
   per applications for concrete network infrastructures (e.g. per 
   network connection). 
   The "on demand" user policy specification is restricted by the
   particular SLAs and dependencies of the actor's policies.
   To allow automated policy translation and consistency check, the 
   policy information and related data are defined by ontologies 
   [2], [12].  
   Ontology is used for policy specification and translation of 
   business policies to intermediate, operation and configuration
   level specifications. 
   The QoS policy management is based on translation of business
   policy  specifications into unified policy repository.
   APM interfaces allow entering of policies by different actors and 
   automated translation of dynamically specified requirements and 
   preferences (e.g. business level policies) into intermediate 
   (unified) policies.

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   The common policy repository for unified (intermediate policies) 
   - Access to policies and check of their dependencies considering
     different actors (users, network operators and service providers),
     their dependencies and corresponding SLAs. 
   - Interaction of the functions for automated policy provisioning 
     using common and consistent policy definitions.
   POLD component includes functions for access, storage and update of
   intermediate policies.
   For automated QoS policy provisioning based on the intermediate 
   policy repository the following components are interacting: 
   - Automated Policy Adaptor (APA) for policy decision, enforcement 
     and adaptation;
   - Monitoring and Measurement (MoMe) infrastructure for policy 
     performance analysis and assessment of network QoS;
   - NetAgent and TransAgent for policy configuration at the managed 
     entities,  such as router or transport protocols, considering
     their particular capabilities; 
   - Context Manager for control of interactions between different 
     policy management components.  

   The interactions of NETQOS components are shown in figure 5: 
                        Policy monitoring         Management  
                        & assessment of              of
                        enforced policies         interactions
                           +--------+           +-------------+
                           | MoMe   |<--------- |     CM      |
                           +--------+           +-------------+
                                |                   |
                                v                   v
               +------+     +-------+      +-------------+ Policy decision,
     +-------->| APM  | --->| POLD  |<---> |    APA      |  adaptation, 
     actor's   +------+     +-------+      +-------------+  enforcement 
     business                   |                  |     |  (operational
     QoS                        |                  |     |   policy)
     policies                   |                  |     |
     interface         Storage  v Access           |     |
                     +---------------------+   +------+  +----------+
                     | policy repository   |   |  Net |  | Transport|
                     |  (unified policies) |   |Agent |  | Agent    |
                     | policy translation  |   +------+  +----------+
                     +---------------------+   Configuration
                                               of operational policies
                                               at heterogeneous entities 
   Figure 6: Interactions of NETQOS system components for 
                 dynamic QoS policy provisioning

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   At the business level, QoS policies are entered dynamically by the 
   actors using APM GUIs, which are designed considering the role, 
   knowledge and expertise represented in ontology of the particular 
   actors (operator, user, customer).
   The APM GUIs check the business level QoS requirements of the actors
   for consistency using using ontology and generate business level policy
   For the automated provisioning, business level policies are 
   translated (refined) into intermediate (unified) QoS policy abstractions
   and stored in the repository.
   The access to the policy repository is performed by the POLD component. 
   POLD functions store the business policies of the actors as intermediate
   (unified) QoS policies in the repository. 
   When the policy enforcement is required (launch of an actor's 
   policy controlled application), the APA (Automated Policy Adaptor)
   component obtains the intermediate policies dealing with the application
   from the repository using POLD and transforms them into operational
   policies (represented as XACML messages).   
   The operational policies are defined for managed entities and allow 
   the mapping of the unified policy requirements to the specific QoS
   mechanisms of the managed heterogeneous entities (routers, services, 
   The Transport and Network Agents, which are invoked by APA, 
   receive the operational policies and enforcement instructions for 
   automated configuration considering the specific capabilities of the 
   transport and network entities.    
   When the operational policy is enforced, the MoMe framework for 
   evaluation of policy performance and detection of QoS degradation is
   automatically triggered.   
   MoMe can detect specific events related to the policy (i.e. congestion, 
   overloaded connection, etc.), and send signalling messages to the APA
   component which will adapt the operational QoS policies to meet the 
   goals definde in the unified policies for this situation (application, 
   service provider, network, ...).
   This way the NETQOS system supports dynamic QoS provisioning and 
   adaptation for heterogeneous Internet environments based on dynamic 
   QoS policy specifications by different actors, which take into account
   SLAs, ontology descriptions and expert knowledge. 

   6. References 

   [1]     EU IST project, Policy Based Management of Heterogeneous 
           Networks for Guaranteed QoS (NETQOS),
   [2]     I. Miloucheva, D. Wagner, Ch. Niephaus, "User centric QoS 
           policy management for heterogeneous Internet environment", 
           ICT-Mobile Summit, Stockholm, Sweden, June, 2008.

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   [3]     P.A.Aranda Gutierrez, I. Miloucheva,Ch. Chassot, K. Drira, 
           A. Flitzikowski, Ch. Brandauer, S. Romano, S. Rao, 
           QoS policies for heterogeneous access network environment, 
           draft-paag-qos-policy-00.txt, Internet Draft, Work in Progress, 
           February 2007		

   [4]     B. Moore, E. Elleson, J. Strassner, A. Westerinen, "Policy Core 
           Information Model-Version 1 Specification", RFC 3060, Febr.2001.

   [5]     B. Moore, Policy Core Information Model (PCIM) Extensions, 
           RFC 3460, January 2003

   [6]     Y. Snir, Y. Ramberg, J. Strassner, R. Cohen, B. Moore, "Policy
           Quality of Service Information Model", RFC 3644, Nov. 2003.

   [7]     B. Moore, D. Durham, J. Strassner, A. Westerinen, W. Weiss,  
           "Information Model for Describing Network Device QoS Datapath
           Mechanisms", RFC 3670, January 2004.

   [8]     S. Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate 
           Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [9]     A. Westerinen, J. Schnizlein, J. Strassner, M. Scherling, 
           R. Quinn, S. Herzog, A. Huynh, M. Carlson, J. Perry, J. and M.
           Waldbusser, "Terminology for Policy-based  Management", IETF 
           RFC 3198, November 2001.
   [10]    I. Miloucheva, D.Wagner, Ch. Niephaus, D. Hetzer, "User-centric
           identity enabled QoS policy management for Next Generation 
           Internet", International Review on Computers and Software 
           (IRECOS) Journal, July 2008. 

   [11]    OASIS eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) TC, 
           XACML 2.0 Specification Set, XACML 3.0 Work in Progress.

   [12]    OWL Web Ontology Language Semantics and Abstract Syntax, 

   7. Author's Addresses 

   David Wagner                         
   Fraunhofer Institute, SATCOM FOKUS,Schloss Birlinghoven	
   53757 Sankt Augustin, Germany
   Phone: +49-2241-14-3491

   Email:  Ilka Miloucheva                         
   Fraunhofer Institute, SATCOM FOKUS,Schloss Birlinghoven	
   53757 Sankt Augustin, Germany
   Phone: +49-2241-14-3471

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   Christian Niephaus                       
   Fraunhofer Institute, SATCOM FOKUS,Schloss Birlinghoven	
   53757 Sankt Augustin, Germany
   Phone: +49-2241-14-3468

   Adam Flizikowski 
   Adam Mickiewicz University (UAM)
   Department of Applied Informatics
   ul.Umultowska 85
   61-614 Poznan, Poland
   Phone: +48-698-921-977

   Marcin Wachowiak 
   ITTI sp. z o. o.
   ul. Rubiez 46C
   61-612 Poznan, Poland
   Phone: +48-692-583-607

   Pedro A. Aranda Gutierrez        
   Telefinica I+D                
   C/Emilio Vargas,6 E-28043 Madrid
   Phone: +34-913 374 702 

   Dirk Hetzer
   Goslarer Ufer 35, D- 10589 Berlin 
   Tel +49 30 3497 4600 
   Fax +49 391 5342650172

   8. Intellectual Property

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   pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in
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   Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any
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   attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of
   such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this
   specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository at

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   The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
   copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
   rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement
   this standard.  Please address the information to the IETF at

   9. Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008).

   This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
   contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
   retain all their rights.

   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an

Wagner                    Expires April 2009                     [Page 15]

INTERNET-DRAFT       Dynamic policy specification        November 30, 2008