Internet DRAFT - draft-herberg-manet-packetbb-sec

draft-herberg-manet-packetbb-sec






Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET)                              U. Herberg
Internet-Draft                                                T. Clausen
Intended status: Standards Track                LIX, Ecole Polytechnique
Expires: September 9, 2010                                 March 8, 2010


             MANET Cryptographical Signature TLV Definition
                  draft-herberg-manet-packetbb-sec-03

Abstract

   This document describes a general and flexible TLV (type-length-value
   structure) for representing cryptographic signatures as well as
   timestamps, using the generalized MANET packet/message format
   [RFC5444].  It defines two Packet TLVs, two Message TLVs, and two
   Address Block TLVs, for affixing cryptographic signatures and
   timestamps to a packet, message and address, respectively.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 9, 2010.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents



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   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
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   described in the BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  Applicability Statement  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   4.  Protocol Overview and Functioning  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   5.  General Signature TLV Structure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     5.1.  Rationale  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   6.  General Timestamp TLV Structure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   7.  Packet TLVs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     7.1.  Packet SIGNATURE TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     7.2.  Packet TIMESTAMP TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   8.  Message TLVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     8.1.  Message SIGNATURE TLV  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     8.2.  Message TIMESTAMP TLV  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   9.  Address Block TLVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     9.1.  Address Block SIGNATURE TLV  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     9.2.  Address Block TIMESTAMP TLV  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   10. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     10.1. TLV Registrations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       10.1.1.  Expert Review: Evaluation Guidelines  . . . . . . . .  9
       10.1.2.  Packet TLV Type Registrations . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       10.1.3.  Message TLV Type Registrations  . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       10.1.4.  Address Block TLV Type Registrations  . . . . . . . . 11
     10.2. New IANA Registries  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       10.2.1.  Expert Review: Evaluation Guidelines  . . . . . . . . 12
       10.2.2.  Hash Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       10.2.3.  Cryptographic Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   11. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   12. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   13. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     13.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     13.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   Appendix A.  Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     A.1.  Example of a Signed Message  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17






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1.  Introduction

   This document:

   o  specifies two TLVs for carrying cryptographic signatures and
      timestamps in packets, messages and address blocks as defined by
      [RFC5444],

   o  requests IANA allocations for these Packet, Message, and Address
      Block TLVs from the 0-223 Packet TLV range, the 0-127 Message TLV
      range and the 0-127 Address Block TLV range from [RFC5444],

   o  describes how cryptographic signatures are calculated, taking (for
      Message TLVs) into account the mutable message header fields
      (<msg-hop-limit> and <msg-hop-count>) where these fields are
      present in messages,

   o  requests creation of two IANA registries for recording code points
      for hash function and signature calculation, respectively.

   This document does not stipulate how to sign or validate messages.  A
   specification of a routing protocol or routing protocol extension,
   using the security representation of this document, MUST specify
   appropriate interpretation of the TLVs.  This document does
   specifically not suggest specific cryptographic algorithms or hash
   functions, but rather establishes IANA registries for such.


2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   [RFC2119].

   This document uses the terminology and notation defined in [RFC5444].
   Additionally, it defines the following terminology:

   o  Hash-Function

         A hash function is an algorithm that takes a message of any
         length as input and produces a fixed-length string as output.
         Hash functions are used in cryptography for authentication and
         message integrity.

   o  Object





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         An object, here, is any sequence of bytes that is used to
         calculate the signature over (e.g. a packet, a message, an
         address as defined in [RFC5444], a timestamp, or a combination
         of these).

   o  Signature

         A digital signature can be used to (i) authenticate the
         originator and (ii) to assure that the object, which has been
         signed, has not been altered in transit.  In many cases, a
         signature is calculated by encrypting a hash of the object,
         which is the basic assumption of this specification.

   o  Timestamp

         The timestamp indicates the time when the timestamp has been
         created.  If a timestamp is added to an object before signing
         the object, this information can be useful to determine the
         "freshness" of the signed object.  "Old" objects can indicate
         replayed objects.  The minimal requirement for a timestamp is
         to provide a logical representation of time (e.g.  Lamport
         time).  Using timestamps may require - at least roughly -
         synchronized clocks among the routers in the network.


3.  Applicability Statement

   The packet and message format defined in [RFC5444] accords MANET
   routing protocols, using this format, the ability to carry additional
   information in control messages, through inclusion of TLVs.
   Information so included in a control message MAY be used by the
   routing protocol, or by an extension of the routing protocol,
   according to its specification.

   This document specifies how to include a cryptographic signature for
   a packet, message or address block by way of such TLVs.  This
   document also specifies how to treat "mutable" fields (<msg-hop-
   count> and <msg-hop-limit>) in the message header when calculating
   signatures, such that the resulting signature can be correctly
   verified by any recipient, and how to include this signature.  A
   MANET routing protocol, or an extension of a MANET routing protocol,
   MAY use such included cryptographic signatures for, for example,
   rejecting messages where signature verification fails.

   Basic MANET routing protocol specifications are often "oblivious to
   security", however have a clause allowing a control message to be
   rejected as "badly formed" prior to it being processed or forwarded.
   Protocols such as [NHDP] and [OLSRv2] recognize external reasons



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   (such as failure to verify a signature) as being reasons for
   rejecting a message as "badly formed", and therefore "invalid for
   processing".  This architecture is a result of the observation that
   with respect to security in MANETs, "one size rarely fits all" and
   that MANET routing protocol deployment domains have varying security
   requirements ranging from "unbreakable" to "virtually none".  The
   virtue of this approach is that MANET routing protocol specifications
   (and implementations) can remain "generic", with extensions providing
   proper deployment-domain specific security mechanisms.

   The MANET routing protocol "security architecture", in which this
   specification situates itself, can therefore be summarized as
   follows:

   o  Security-oblivious MANET routing protocol specifications, with a
      clause allowing an extension to reject a message (prior to
      processing/forwarding) as "badly formed".

   o  MANET routing protocol security extensions, rejecting messages as
      "badly formed", as appropriate for a given deployment-domain
      specific security requirement.

   o  Code-points and an exchange format for information necessary for
      specification of such security extensions.

   This document addresses the last of these issues, by specifying a
   common exchange format for cryptographic signatures.  This document
   also makes reservations from within the Packet TLV, Message TLV and
   Address Block TLV registries of [RFC5444], to be used (and shared)
   among MANET routing protocol security extensions.  Finally, this
   document establishes two IANA registries for code-points for hash
   functions and cryptographic algorithms for use by protocols adhering
   to [RFC5444].

   With respect to [RFC5444], this document:

   o  is intended to be used in the non-normative, but intended, mode of
      use of [RFC5444] as described in its Appendix B.

   o  is a specific example of the Security Considerations section of
      [RFC5444] (the authentication part).


4.  Protocol Overview and Functioning

   This specification does not describe a protocol, nor does it mandate
   specific router or protocol behavior.  It represents a purely
   syntactical representation of security related information for use



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   with [RFC5444] messages and packets, as well as establishes IANA
   registrations and registries.


5.  General Signature TLV Structure

   The following data structure allows representation of a cryptographic
   signature, including specification of the appropriate hash function
   and cryptographic algorithm used for calculating the signature.  This
   <signature> data structure is specified, using the regular expression
   syntax of [RFC5444], as:

             <signature> := <hash-function>
                            <cryptographic-algorithm>
                            <signature-value>

   where:

   <hash-function>  is an 8-bit unsigned integer field specifying the
      hash function.

   <cryptographic-algorithm>  is an 8-bit unsigned integer field
      specifying the cryptographic algorithm.

   <signature-value>  is an unsigned integer field, whose length is
      <tlv-length>-2, and which contains the cryptographic signature.

   The basic version of this TLV assumes that calculating the signature
   can be decomposed into:

      signature-value = cryptographic-function(hash-function(message))

   The hash function and the cryptographic algorithm correspond to the
   IANA registry in the two registries set up by this specification, see
   Section 10.

5.1.  Rationale

   The rationale for separating the hash function and the cryptographic
   algorithm into two octets instead of having all combinations in a
   single octet - possibly as TLV type extension - is twofold: First, if
   further hash functions or cryptographic algorithms are added in the
   future, the number space might not remain continuous.  More
   importantly, the number space of 256 possible combinations would be
   rapidly exhausted: 16 different hash functions and 16 different
   cryptographic algorithms would lead to exhaustion.  As new or
   improved cryptographic mechanism are continuously being developed and
   introduced, this format should be able to accommodate such for the



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   foreseeable future.

   The rationale for not including a field that lists parameters of the
   cryptographic signature in the TLV is the following: Before being
   able to to validate a cryptographic signature, routers have to
   exchange keys (e.g. public keys).  Any additional parameters can be
   exchanged together with the keys in this bootstrap process.  It is
   therefore not necessary, and would even entail an extra overhead, to
   transmit the parameters within every message.  One inherently
   included parameter is the length of the signature, which is tlv-
   length - 2 and which depends on the choice of the cryptographic
   algorithm.


6.  General Timestamp TLV Structure

   The following data structure allows the representation of a
   timestamp.  This <timestamp> data structure is specified as:

          <timestamp> := <time-value>

   where:

   <time-value>  is an unsigned integer field, whose length is <tlv-
      length>, and which contains the timestamp.  The value of this
      variable is to be interpreted by the routing protocol as specified
      by the type extension of the Timestamp TLV (refer to Table 1).

   A timestamp is essentially "freshness information".  As such, its
   setting and interpretation is to be determined by the routing
   protocol (or the extension to a routing protocol) that uses it, and
   may e.g. correspond to a UNIX-timestamp, GPS timestamp or a simple
   sequence number.  This is out of the scope of this specification.


7.  Packet TLVs

   Two Packet TLVs are defined, for including the cryptographic
   signature of a packet, and for including the timestamp indicating the
   time at which the cryptographic signature was calculated.

7.1.  Packet SIGNATURE TLV

   A Packet SIGNATURE TLV is an example of a Signature TLV as described
   in Section 5.  When calculating the <signature-value> for a Packet,
   the signature is calculated over the entire Packet, including the
   packet header, all Packet TLVs (other than Packet SIGNATURE TLVs) and
   all included Messages and their message headers.



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7.2.  Packet TIMESTAMP TLV

   A Packet TIMESTAMP TLV is an example of a Timestamp TLV as described
   in Section 6.  If a packet contains a TIMESTAMP TLV and a SIGNATURE
   TLV, the TIMESTAMP TLV SHOULD be added to the packet before the
   SIGNATURE TLV, in order that it be included in the calculation of the
   signature.


8.  Message TLVs

   Two Message TLVs are defined, for including the cryptographic
   signature of a message, and for including the timestamp indicating
   the time at which the cryptographic signature was calculated.

8.1.  Message SIGNATURE TLV

   A Message SIGNATURE TLV is an example of a Signature TLV as described
   in Section 5.  When determining the <signature-value> for a message,
   the signature is calculated over the entire message with the
   following considerations:

   o  the fields <msg-hop-limit> and <msg-hop-count> MUST be both
      assumed to have the value 0 (zero).

   o  all Message SIGNATURE TLVs MUST be removed before calculating the
      signature, and the message size as well as the Message TLV block
      size MUST be recalculated accordingly.  The TLVs can be restored
      after having calculated the signature value.

8.2.  Message TIMESTAMP TLV

   A Message TIMESTAMP TLV is an example of a Timestamp TLV as described
   in Section 6.  If a message contains a TIMESTAMP TLV and a SIGNATURE
   TLV, the TIMESTAMP TLV SHOULD be added to the message before the
   SIGNATURE TLV, in order that it be included in the calculation of the
   signature.


9.  Address Block TLVs

   Two Address Block TLVs are defined, for associating a cryptographic
   signature to an address, and for including the timestamp indicating
   the time at which the cryptographic signature was calculated.







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9.1.  Address Block SIGNATURE TLV

   An Address Block SIGNATURE TLV is an example of a Signature TLV as
   described in Section 5.  The signature can be calculated over any
   object, including, for example, the address to which this TLV is
   associated to.

9.2.  Address Block TIMESTAMP TLV

   An Address Block TIMESTAMP TLV is an example of a Timestamp TLV as
   described in Section 6.  If both a TIMESTAMP TLV and a SIGNATURE TLV
   are associated with an address, the timestamp value should be
   considered when calculating the value of the signature.


10.  IANA Considerations

10.1.  TLV Registrations

   This specification defines:

   o  two Packet TLV types which must be allocated from the 0-223 range
      of the "Assigned Packet TLV Types" repository of [RFC5444] as
      specified in Table 1,

   o  two Message TLV types which must be allocated from the 0-127 range
      of the "Assigned Message TLV Types" repository of [RFC5444] as
      specified in Table 2,

   o  and two Address Block TLV types which must be allocated from the
      0-127 range of the "Assigned Address Block TLV Types" repository
      of [RFC5444] as specified in Table 3.

   IANA is requested to assign the same numerical value to the Packet
   TLV, Message TLV and Address Block TLV types with the same name.

10.1.1.  Expert Review: Evaluation Guidelines

   For the registries for TLV type extensions where an Expert Review is
   required, the designated expert SHOULD take the same general
   recommendations into consideration as are specified by [RFC5444].

10.1.2.  Packet TLV Type Registrations

   The Packet TLVs as specified in Table 1 must be allocated from the
   "Packet TLV Types" namespace of [RFC5444].





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   +-----------+------+-----------+------------------------------------+
   |    Name   | Type |    Type   |             Description            |
   |           |      | Extension |                                    |
   +-----------+------+-----------+------------------------------------+
   | SIGNATURE | TBD3 |     0     |        Signature of a packet       |
   |           |      |   1-223   |            Expert Review           |
   |           |      |  224-255  |          Experimental Use          |
   | TIMESTAMP | TBD4 |     0     |   Unsigned timestamp of arbitrary  |
   |           |      |           |   length, given by the tlv-length  |
   |           |      |           | field. The timestamp is assumed to |
   |           |      |           |  increase strictly monotonously by |
   |           |      |           |    steps of 1. The MANET routing   |
   |           |      |           |    protocol has to define how to   |
   |           |      |           |      interpret this timestamp      |
   |           |      |     1     |    Unsigned 32-bit timestamp as    |
   |           |      |           |        specified in [POSIX]        |
   |           |      |     2     | NTP timestamp format as defined in |
   |           |      |           |              [RFC4330]             |
   |           |      |     3     |    Signed timestamp of arbitrary   |
   |           |      |           | length with no constraints such as |
   |           |      |           |   monotonicity. In particular, it  |
   |           |      |           |   may represent any random value   |
   |           |      |   4-223   |            Expert Review           |
   |           |      |  224-255  |          Experimental Use          |
   +-----------+------+-----------+------------------------------------+

                         Table 1: Packet TLV types

10.1.3.  Message TLV Type Registrations

   The Message TLVs as specified in Table 2 must be allocated from the
   "Message TLV Types" namespace of [RFC5444].

   +-----------+------+-----------+------------------------------------+
   |    Name   | Type |    Type   |             Description            |
   |           |      | Extension |                                    |
   +-----------+------+-----------+------------------------------------+
   | SIGNATURE | TBD1 |     0     |       Signature of a message       |
   |           |      |   1-223   |            Expert Review           |
   |           |      |  224-255  |          Experimental Use          |
   | TIMESTAMP | TBD2 |     0     |   Unsigned timestamp of arbitrary  |
   |           |      |           |   length, given by the tlv-length  |
   |           |      |           | field. The timestamp is assumed to |
   |           |      |           |  increase strictly monotonously by |
   |           |      |           |    steps of 1. The MANET routing   |
   |           |      |           |    protocol has to define how to   |
   |           |      |           |      interpret this timestamp      |




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   |           |      |     1     |    Unsigned 32-bit timestamp as    |
   |           |      |           |        specified in [POSIX]        |
   |           |      |     2     | NTP timestamp format as defined in |
   |           |      |           |              [RFC4330]             |
   |           |      |     3     |    Signed timestamp of arbitrary   |
   |           |      |           | length with no constraints such as |
   |           |      |           |   monotonicity. In particular, it  |
   |           |      |           |   may represent any random value   |
   |           |      |   4-223   |            Expert Review           |
   |           |      |  224-255  |          Experimental Use          |
   +-----------+------+-----------+------------------------------------+

                        Table 2: Message TLV types

10.1.4.  Address Block TLV Type Registrations

   The Address Block TLVs as specified in Table 3 must be allocated from
   the "Address Block TLV Types" namespace of [RFC5444].

   +-----------+------+-----------+------------------------------------+
   |    Name   | Type |    Type   |             Description            |
   |           |      | Extension |                                    |
   +-----------+------+-----------+------------------------------------+
   | SIGNATURE | TBD1 |     0     |   Signature of an object (e.g. an  |
   |           |      |           |              address)              |
   |           |      |   1-223   |            Expert Review           |
   |           |      |  224-255  |          Experimental Use          |
   | TIMESTAMP | TBD2 |     0     |   Unsigned timestamp of arbitrary  |
   |           |      |           |   length, given by the tlv-length  |
   |           |      |           | field. The timestamp is assumed to |
   |           |      |           |  increase strictly monotonously by |
   |           |      |           |    steps of 1. The MANET routing   |
   |           |      |           |    protocol has to define how to   |
   |           |      |           |      interpret this timestamp      |
   |           |      |     1     |    Unsigned 32-bit timestamp as    |
   |           |      |           |        specified in [POSIX]        |
   |           |      |     2     | NTP timestamp format as defined in |
   |           |      |           |              [RFC4330]             |
   |           |      |     3     |    Signed timestamp of arbitrary   |
   |           |      |           | length with no constraints such as |
   |           |      |           |   monotonicity. In particular, it  |
   |           |      |           |   may represent any random value   |
   |           |      |   4-223   |            Expert Review           |
   |           |      |  224-255  |          Experimental Use          |
   +-----------+------+-----------+------------------------------------+

                     Table 3: Address Block TLV types




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10.2.  New IANA Registries

   This document introduces three namespaces that have been registered:
   Packet TLV Types, Message TLV Types, and Address Block TLV Types.
   This section specifies IANA registries for these namespaces and
   provides guidance to the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
   regarding registrations in these namespaces.

   The following terms are used with the meanings defined in [BCP26]:
   "Namespace", "Assigned Value", "Registration", "Unassigned",
   "Reserved", "Hierarchical Allocation", and "Designated Expert".

   The following policies are used with the meanings defined in [BCP26]:
   "Private Use", "Expert Review", and "Standards Action".

10.2.1.  Expert Review: Evaluation Guidelines

   For the registries for the following tables where an Expert Review is
   required, the designated expert SHOULD take the same general
   recommendations into consideration as are specified by [RFC5444].

10.2.2.  Hash Function

   IANA is requested to create a new registry for the hash functions
   that can be used when creating a signature.  The initial assignments
   and allocation policies are specified in Table 4.

   +-------------+-----------+-----------------------------------------+
   |     Hash    | Algorithm |               Description               |
   |   function  |           |                                         |
   |    value    |           |                                         |
   +-------------+-----------+-----------------------------------------+
   |      0      |    none   | The "identity function": the hash value |
   |             |           |    of an object is the object itself    |
   |      1      |    MD5    |    The hash function as specified in    |
   |             |           |                [RFC1321]                |
   |      2      |    SHA1   |    The hash function as specified in    |
   |             |           |                [RFC3174]                |
   |      3      |   SHA256  |    The hash function as specified in    |
   |             |           |                 [SHA256]                |
   |    4-223    |           |              Expert Review              |
   |   224-255   |           |             Experimental Use            |
   +-------------+-----------+-----------------------------------------+

                      Table 4: Hash-Function registry






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10.2.3.  Cryptographic Algorithm

   IANA is requested to create a new registry for the cryptographic
   algorithm.  Initial assignments and allocation policies are specified
   in Table 5.

   +-----------------+-----------+-------------------------------------+
   |  Cryptographic  | Algorithm |             Description             |
   | algorithm value |           |                                     |
   +-----------------+-----------+-------------------------------------+
   |        0        |    none   |  The "identity function": the value |
   |                 |           |   of an encrypted hash is the hash  |
   |                 |           |                itself               |
   |        1        |    RSA    |    RSA as specified in [RFC2437]    |
   |        2        |    DSA    |      DSA as specified in [DSA]      |
   |        3        |    HMAC   |    HMAC as specified in [RFC2104]   |
   |        4        |    3DES   |     3DES as specified in [3DES]     |
   |        5        |    AES    |      AES as specified in [AES]      |
   |      6-223      |           |            Expert Review            |
   |     224-255     |           |           Experimental Use          |
   +-----------------+-----------+-------------------------------------+

                 Table 5: Cryptographic algorithm registry


11.  Security Considerations

   This document does not specify a protocol itself.  However, it
   provides a syntactical component for cryptographic signatures of
   messages and packets as defined in [RFC5444].  It can be used to
   address security issues of a protocol or extension that uses the
   component specified in this document.  As such, it has the same
   security considerations as [RFC5444].

   In addition, a protocol that includes this component MUST specify the
   usage as well as the security that is attained by the cryptographic
   signatures of a message or a packet.

   As an example, a routing protocol that uses this component to reject
   "badly formed" messages if a control message does not contain a valid
   signature, should indicate the security assumption that if the
   signature is valid, the message is considered valid.  It also should
   indicate the security issues that are counteracted by this measure
   (e.g. link or identity spoofing) as well as the issues that are not
   counteracted (e.g. compromised keys).






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12.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Jerome Milan (Ecole Polytechnique)
   for his advice as cryptographer.  In addition, many thanks to Alan
   Cullen (BAE), Justin Dean (NRL), Christopher Dearlove (BAE), and
   Henning Rogge (FGAN) for their constructive comments on the document.


13.  References

13.1.  Normative References

   [BCP26]    Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", RFC 5226, BCP 26,
              May 2008.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", RFC 2119, BCP 14, March 1997.

   [RFC5444]  Clausen, T., Dearlove, C., Dean, J., and C. Adjih,
              "Generalized MANET Packet/Message Format", RFC 5444,
              February 2009.

13.2.  Informative References

   [3DES]     American National Standards Institute, "Triple Data
              Encryption Algorithm Modes of Operation", ANSI X9.52-1998,
              1998.

   [AES]      National Institute of Standards & Technology, "Advanced
              Encryption Standard (AES)", FIPS 197, November 2001.

   [DSA]      National Institute of Standards & Technology, "Digital
              Signature Standard", NIST, FIPS PUB 186, May 1994.

   [NHDP]     Clausen, T., Dean, J., and C. Dearlove, "MANET
              Neighborhood Discovery Protocol (NHDP)", work in
              progress draft-ietf-manet-nhdp-11.txt, October 2009.

   [OLSRv2]   Clausen, T., Dearlove, C., and P. Jacquet, "The Optimized
              Link State Routing Protocol version 2", work in
              progress draft-ietf-manet-olsrv2-10.txt, September 2009.

   [POSIX]    IEEE Computer Society, "1003.1-2008 Standard for
              Information Technology - Portable Operating System
              Interface (POSIX)", Base Specifications Issue 7,
              December 2008.




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   [RFC1321]  Rivest, R., "The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm", RFC 1321,
              April 1992.

   [RFC2104]  Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M., and R. Canetti, "HMAC: Keyed-
              Hashing for Message Authentication", RFC 2104,
              February 1997.

   [RFC2437]  Kaliski, B. and J. Staddon, "PKCS #1: RSA Cryptography
              Specifications Version 2.0", RFC 2437, October 1998.

   [RFC3174]  Eastlake, D. and P. Jones, "US Secure Hash Algorithm 1
              (SHA1)", RFC 3174, September 2001.

   [RFC4330]  Mills, D., "Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) Version 4
              for IPv4, IPv6 and OSI", RFC 4330, January 2006.

   [SHA256]   National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Secure
              Hash Algorithm", NIST FIPS 180-2, August 2002.


Appendix A.  Examples

A.1.  Example of a Signed Message

   The sample message depicted in Figure 1 is taken from the appendix of
   [RFC5444].  However, a SIGNATURE Message TLV has been added.  It is
   assumed that the SIGNATURE TLV type is lesser than the TLV type of
   the second message TLV (i.e. it comes first in the order of Message
   TLVs).  The TLV value represents a 16 octet long signature of the
   whole message.





















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      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0|    Packet Sequence Number     | Message Type  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1|0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0|   Orig Addr   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |           Originator Address (cont)           |   Hop Limit   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Hop Count   |    Message Sequence Number    |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0|   SIGNATURE   |0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0|0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Hash Func   |  Crypto Func  |        Signature Value        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                    Signature Value (cont)                     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                    Signature Value (cont)                     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                    Signature Value (cont)                     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |    Signature Value (cont)     |   TLV Type    |0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0|                     Value                     |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                 Value (cont)                  |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|              Mid              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |              Mid              | Prefix Length |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1|1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0|0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |             Head              |              Mid              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |              Mid              |              Mid              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1|   TLV Type    |0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0|             Value             |   TLV Type    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0|  Index Start  |  Index Stop   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                 Figure 1: Example message with signature






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Authors' Addresses

   Ulrich Herberg
   LIX, Ecole Polytechnique
   91128 Palaiseau Cedex,
   France

   Phone: +33-1-6933-4126
   Email: ulrich@herberg.name
   URI:   http://www.herberg.name/


   Thomas Heide Clausen
   LIX, Ecole Polytechnique
   91128 Palaiseau Cedex,
   France

   Phone: +33 6 6058 9349
   Email: T.Clausen@computer.org
   URI:   http://www.thomasclausen.org/































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