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draft-hazewinkel-appl-mib



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INTERNET-DRAFT      draft-hazewinkel-appl-mib-01.txt       July 18, 1997

                                                       Harrie Hazewinkel
                                                          DESIRE / MUSIQ
                                                           CEO Programme
                                       Joint Research Centre of the E.C.
                                                harrie.hazewinkel@jrc.it
        

                                                            July 17 1997





   Survey of Defined Managed Objects for Applications Management




             <draft-hazewinkel-appl-mib-01.txt>








  Status of this Memo


  This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are working
  documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its
  areas, and its working groups.  Note that other groups may also
  distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.

  Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
  months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
  documents at any time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-
  Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as
  ``work in progress.''

  To learn the current status of any Internet-Draft, please check
  the ``1id-abstracts.txt'' listing contained in the Internet-
  Drafts Shadow Directories on ftp.is.co.za (Africa),
  nic.nordu.net (Europe), munnari.oz.au (Pacific Rim),
  ds.internic.net (US East Coast), or ftp.isi.edu (US West Coast).

  Distribution of this document is unlimited. Please send comments
  to harrie.hazewinkel@jrc.it. 
 


  


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  Abstract
  
  
  This document was produced as the result of a survey on MIBs related 
  to application management. The goal was to identify overlapping or 
  duplicated objects and discover problems within the relationships 
  between those MIBs. The survey covered MIBs already defined and those 
  currently being defined with in IETF WGs, namely:

	* the SYSAPPL-MIB, 
	* teh APPLICATION-MIB,
	* the WWW MIB,
	* the NSM-MIB,
	* the DSA-MIB, 
	* the HR-MIB, and
	* the RDBMS-MIB.
  
  It is interesting to note that both the SYSAPPL-MIB and NSM-MIB claim 
  to be generic MIBs (the SYSAPPL-MIB under an OS/host perspective and 
  the NSM-MIB under a networked/distributed perspective). The HR-MIB 
  describes a host as a set of hardware and software groups. On the 
  other hand, either the DSA-MIB, the RDBMS-MIB and the WWW-MIB are 
  application specific MIBs.
  
  There are many overlapping and duplicated objects in the surveyed 
  MIBs. For example, the software groups of the HR-MIB can be replaced 
  with the recently defined SYSAPPL-MIB. Other overlaps or duplications 
  consist mainly of object which have more detail.
  
  The current MIB definitions pose two major problems:

     1) indexing with managed objects of other MIBs, and
     2) mapping of applications on both in the SYSAPPL-MIB and
        the NSM-MIB.

  Implementation problems arise when indexes from other MIBs are used. 
  Is implementation of the MIB containing the objects used for indexes 
  required? Within the current SNMP framework there are no rules or 
  hints given to these questions. If an agent implementor decides not 
  to implement the referred MIB he has to choose his own index values 
  in such a way that no conflicts will occur.

  At the moment, host-based applications map cleanly onto the 
  SYSAPPL-MIB and networked applications fit onto the NSM-MIB. However, 
  an application can be made of multiple elements and processes while 
  being a multiple networked applications (services) at the same time.
  Although a mapping into both MIBs is possible, their relation is not
  specified anyware in the existing MIBs. A relationship table is, 
  therefore, required to supplement the existing MIBs. 
  Otherwise, no coherence between the SYSAPPL-MIB and the NSM-MIB 
  exists.
  
  
 

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  What's new or updated.

  A)  The WWW-MIB sections are changed due to changes of the document
      itself.

  B)  The Application Management MIB is added.

  C)  A possible solution with an integration MIB to bind application
      of the SYSAPPL-MIB and NSM-MIB is added in the conclusions.
      
  D)  The indexing scheme of the RDBMS-MIB is added.
 


1. Introduction


  Distributed applications became increasingly important for 
  organisations. Companies are more geographically spread and their 
  core applications are often connected together across computer 
  networks. The need for instrumentation that provides realtime 
  monitoring and configuration capabilites for these systems is of 
  critical importance. The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) 
  framework can be used to provide this infrastructure. 

  The SNMP framework is used by operators to manage physical or logical
  device remotely. The devices are represented through managed objects
  which are accessed via a virtual information store, termed the 
  Management Information Base or MIB. This MIB (and the SNMP framework)
  allows extensions of new defined managed objects according to a 
  standard scheme.

  The IETF continues to make efforts leading to the definition of MIBs
  that can be used for applications. This internet draft analysis those
  efforts and describes: 

  	1) contents of application MIBs,
	2) duplicated and overlapping objects and the
	3) indexing scheme of application related MIBs. 

  The following MIBs are analysed:
	* the SYSAPPL-MIB,
	* the APPLCIATION-MIB,
	* the WWW MIB,
	* the NSM-MIB,
	* the DSA-MIB,
	* the HR-MIB, and 
	* the RDBMS-MIB.







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1.1 How to read this internet draft.

  This document relates the continuing IETF efforts in application MIB 
  definition with the related. This internet-draft is organised as 
  follows:

    * Section 2 describes the Working Groups (WG) of the surveyed MIBs.
    * Section 3 describes a summary of the surveyed MIBs.
    * Section 4 describes the similarities of the MIBs.
    * Section 5 describes the indexing scheme within the current MIBs


2. The Working Groups of Application Related MIBs


  In this section we provide a short description of the IETF Working 
  Groups working application management related MIBs and present the 
  current status of their work. At this moment only the SYSAPPL WG and
  the MADMAN WG are defining management objects to manage applications.

  The APPLMIB WG is chartered to define managed objects for the 
  monitoring and control of distributed applications. The desire was to
  support distributed applications, but not at the expense of creating a
  MIB which cannot or will not be implemented. Consensus was reached on
  the fact that the APPLMIB WG would focus initially on applications
  resident in a single host, but that there should be a possibility of
  additional growth. Features for distributed applications will be added
  unless the required support would make the MIB over complex.
  The current status is that the first MIB, the SYSAPPL-MIB which does
  not require  instrumentation of the applications for its population,
  is ready. Currently, the APPLMIB WG works on two MIBs, an application
  management MIB requiring instrumentation within applications and a 
  WWW-MIB for monitoring and control of Web servers.

  The MADMAN WG is chartered to review the  managed objects already 
  defined by the WG in January 1994. The WG in 1994 finished their work
  under the Network Management Area and resulted in 4 internet drafts
  which are the Network Services Monitoring MIB, the X.500 Directory 
  Monitoring MIB, the Mail Monitoring MIB and Directory Alarms MIB. In
  this survey only the first two MIBs are described. 
  The review is currently in its final stage and some changes have been
  done the original documents.

  The Host Resources WG was chartered to define a set of managed objects
  useful for management of host computers, the Host Resources (HR) MIB. 
  Host computers were defined as a system independent of the operating 
  system, the network service and the applications running on the host. 
  An important requirement during the definition of the HR MIB was that 
  the managed object had to be system independent.
  The HR WG has finished their work and results are in RFC 1514.

  The Relational DataBase Management System WG was chartered to define a
  set of managed objects useful for the management of database systems. 
  The work is finished and results published in RFC 1697.

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3. The application related MIBs.

  This section is a summary of the documents describing the definition
  of application related MIBs.


3.1 The System Application MIB

                            
  The SYSAPPL-MIB is designed to provide the requirements for monitoring
  the behaviour, the faults and the performance of applications. The 
  design is made in such a way that no instrumentation of an application
  is required. The MIB defines managed objects under an operating system
  and a file-system perspective. The structure of the SYSAPPL-MIB 
  reflects four groups of applications within a system
  
  	1) the installed applications
  	2) the applications that are currently running on the system
  	3) the applications that have run on the system in the past
  	4) the mapping from running towards the installed elements 


  The Installed Applications Group.
  --- --------- ------------ ------

  The installed applications group provides information on the software 
  installed on a system. This group has a highly static character, since
  installed applications tend to not change very fast. The group makes a
  distinction between an application and the elements from which it is 
  composed. By using the information provided by this group a user can 
  obtain information about the currently running elements (processes) or
  those elements (processes) that have run in applications.

  The group consists of:
    * "sysApplInstallPkgTable" provides information on the installed 
      packages such as name, version, location and installed date.
    * "sysApplInstallElmtTable" provides detailed information on the 
      application by means of a set of elements acting together as an 
      application. Each element is described in an entry and provides 
      information such as whether the element is executable, name, 
      installed date.


  The Applications Run Group.
  --- ------------ --- ------

  The applications run group reflects the dynamic information from the
  applications on a system. It describes applications that are currently
  running or that have run on a system. The elements provide historic 
  information about the applications. The group is divided in the same 
  fashion  as the installed application group, i.e. an application table
  and an element table. Besides that division, the tables are also 
  divided into applications which are running or have been run.

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  Due to the historical character of this group, the 'have run' tables
  can consume an unlimited size and number of resources. Therefore, 
  managed objects are added to control and limit the amount of used 
  resources.


  The group defines the following objects:

    * "sysApplRunTable" provides information on applications currently
      running on the system. For instance, the time an application
      started running, the number files it has open and the number 
      of connections it has.
    * "sysApplPastRunTable" provides historical information about
      applications that have been running. For instance, the time an
      application started running, the time it stopped and the last
      known number of connections.
    * "sysApplElmtRunTable" provides information on all processes 
      running and (if known) to which application a process belongs. For
      instance, the time the process started running and the number of
      connections the process has.
    * "sysApplElmtPastRunTable" provides information on processes that
      have been running. For instance, the time a process started 
      running and the time it stopped running.
    * "sysApplPastRunTableSizeLimit" provides the maximum number of
      entries in the "sysApplPastRunTable". When this limit is reached
      the oldest entry will be removed.
    * "sysApplPastRunTableItemsRem" provides a count of the number of
      items removed from the "sysApplPastRunTable".
    * "sysApplPastRunTimeLimit" provides the minimum time that should 
      pass before an entry may be removed from the 
      "sysApplPastRunTable".
    * "sysApplElemPastRunSizeLimit" provides the maximum size of entry
      growth of the "sysApplElmtPastRunTable" before the oldest entry 
      will be removed.
    * "sysApplElmtPastRunTableItemsRem" provides a count of the number
      of items removed from the "sysApplElmtPastRunTable".
    * "sysApplPastRunTimeLimit" provid the minimum amount of time 
      before an entry may be removed from the "sysApplPastRunTable".
    * "sysApplPollInterval" provides the minimum time in seconds that 
      an agent will poll the status of the managed resources.

  The Mapping Group
  --- ------- -----

  The mapping group provides an easy mapping from running elements
  in the running element table towards the installed elements table.

  The managed objects are:
      * "sysApplMapTable" provides the mapping from a running element
        entry to an installed element entry.



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3.2 The Application Management MIB

  The Application Management MIB defines a set of managed object to
  monitor 'internal' application behavior. This requires that 
  applications has to be instrumented in order to populate this MIB.
  This is in contrast of the SYSAPPL-MIB which does not require the 
  instrumentation of applications. This MIB focusses on the management
  of running elements. Therefore, this MIB should be used in conjunction
  with SYSAPPL-MIB.
  The structure of the MIB reflects the throughput, reports of unit of 
  work, and generic resource management and can be grouped like:
         1) relations group,
         2) files group,
         3) connections group,
         4) transaction statistics group,
         5) running element behavior.


  The Relation Group
  --- -------- -----

  The relation group connects the 'active' running elements of an 
  application to the networked applications as defined in the NSM-MIB. 
  This mapping is required, since there is no 1:1 relationship between
  the networked applcation and the running element. Multiple relations
  (both ways) are possible.

  The managed objects are:
    * "nsmToSysApplElmtRunTable" provides a linking between running
      elements as managed in this MIB and both the NSM-MIB and 
      SYSAPPL-MIB.


  The files group
  --- ----- -----

  This group provides information about the use of files. The group is
  organised per running application element and connects them to the 
  open files.

  The managed objects of this group are:
    * "applOpenFileTable" provides management information about the 
      file and in perticular the activity of the application element
      with this file.
      The table consists of objects like the number of read requests,
      last time the file was read and the numebr of bytes associated
      with the read requests.
    * "applOpenFileXrefTable" provides an alternative for the indexing
      used in the "applOpenFileTable".






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  The connections group
  --- ----------- -----

  The connections group maintains usefull management information about
  the current and previous network connections at a per running element
  sorting. Although, the description of the group implies a very tight
  connection to the NSM-MIB.
  
  The managed objects of this group are:
    * "applOpenConnectionTable" provides information about connections
      of a running element. This table explicitly provides only managed
      information of the connections and it doesn't interpret the 
      passed information in any form.
    * "applExConnectionControlTable" allows a manager to set the 
      boundaries of the "applExConnectionTable". The boundaries are the
      amount and the 'time-to-live' of the entries in the 
      "applExConnectionTable".
      
    * "applExConnectionTable" provides a history of the connection of 
      the running elements. Entries exists only in this table after the
      connection is closed and existed in the "applOpenConnectionTable".

  The Transaction Group
  --- ----------- -----

  The transaction group provides besides the connection group also 
  network traffic related management information. This group looks with
  detail to the traffic past at the connections of the running element.

  The managed objects are:
    * "applTransactionControltable" provides a manager a to set up
      for which open files or connections transactions are defined
      and the unit of work.
    * "applTransactionStreamTable" provides information about units of
      work in streams, such as number of requests, number of responses
      and the accumulated time between tehm seen from the running 
      element.


  The running element behavior group
  --- ------- ------- -------- -----

  This group provides monitor and control functionality for the running
  elements within the system. 

  The managed objects are:
    * "applElmtRunStatusTable" provides the ability to monitor the 
      behavior of the running element. 
    * "applElmtRunControlTable" provides the control to, for instance,
      suspend or reconfigure the running element.





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3.3 The World Wide Web MIB

  The WWW-MIB is designed to fulfil the requirements to manage entities 
  responsible for documents exchange over the World Wide Web. The 
  emphasis of the definitions is at the service provided by the entity.
  An entity is defined as a logical device which can behave as a client,
  a server, a proxy or a cached-proxy accessible via an unique fully
  qualified domain name and service port. Between the entities
  documents are transported through a 'Document Transfer Protocol' (DTP)
  which is based on the request/response paradigm and abstracts from 
  the actual used protocol. Therefore, the WWW-MIB can be used in a
  wide range of document transfer protocols and also allows the 
  introduction of new DTPs based on the client-server paradigm. HTTP, 
  FTP and NNTP are examples of such protocols. 
  
  The structure of the WWW-MIB reflects the four major groups: 
	1) entity administration ("wwwSystem"),
        2) DTP traffic ("wwwServiceStatistics"),
        3) accessed or stored document ("wwwDocuments"). 

  The System Group
  --- ------ -----

  The system group provides general information on the WWW entities in
  the system. Those entities exchange messages (PDUs) between each 
  other with the abstract defined 'Document Transfer Protocol'.

  The group consists of one table.
    * "wwwEntityTable" provides general administrative information of
      an entity. For instance, contact address, the used 'DTP' protocol
      and the fully qulified domain name the entity listens to. The
      index used to uniquely define the entities is an WWW-MIB internal
      arbitrary number.


  The Service Statistics Group
  --- ------- ---------- -----

  The service statistics group provides network management information
  on network traffic transmitted and/or received by the WWW-entity.

  The group consists of the following tables.
    * "wwwSummaryTable" provides a summary on the network traffic 
      statistics of the associated entity. The index used is equal to
      the "wwwEntityTable". For instance, the number of requests 
      received or transmitted and the number of unknown protocol type
      messages.
    * "wwwRequestInTable" provides the statistics on the received 
      requests whereby for each request type statistics is maintained.
      The indexing of this table is defined by the "wwwRequestInIndex"
      and the "wwwEntityIndex" which associates the requesttype with an
      entity. For instance, a recieved GET-request of HTTP is kept in 
      an entry.
    * "wwwRequestOutTable" provides the statistics on the transmitted 

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      responses whereby for each response type statistics is
      maintained. The indexing of this table is defined by the
      "wwwRequestInIndex" and the "wwwEntityIndex" which associates
      the requesttype with an entity.
      For instance, a transmitted GET-request of HTTP is kept in an 
      entry.
    * "wwwResponseInTable" provides the statistics on the received 
      responses whereby for each response type statistics is
      maintained. The indexing of this table is defined by the 
      "wwwResponseInIndex" and the "wwwEntityIndex" which associates
      the responsetype with an entity. For instance, a received 
      200-reply (OK) of HTTP is kept in an entry.
    * "wwwResponseOutTable" provides the statistics on the transmitted
      responses whereby for each response type statistics is 
      maintained. The indexing of this table is defined by the 
      "wwwResponseOutIndex" and the "wwwEntityIndex" which associates
      the responsetype with an entity. For instance, a transmitted 
      200-reply (OK) of HTTP is kept in an entry.


  The Document Group
  --- -------- -----

  The "wwwDocumentGroup" defines management information on the 
  documents which in the past were attempted to read. The management
  information is ordered by the entities and has a bucket approach. 
  The bucket approach is used to reduce unmeaningfull information, but
  document statistics should still be possible.

  The document group has the following defined objects:
    * "wwwDocCtrlTable" provides the manager the possiblity to 
      configure the document statistics tables, such as table size and
      bucket creation time.
    * "wwwDocLastNTable" provides a list of the last N documents which
      were attempted to read.
    * "wwwDocBucketTable" provides the summary statistics of the read
      attempts which were captured by the bucket.
    * "wwwDocBucketTopNtable" provides a 'top N' of the documents which
      were attempted to read. The sort order with which the 'top N' is 
      created can be configured with the "wwwDocCtrlTable".


3.4 The Network Services Monitoring MIB


  The NSM-MIB is designed to monitor the behaviour of networked 
  applications. No application specific objects are defined in the 
  NSM-MIB. Therefore, it can be used for a wide range of applications
  which make use of network services and are distributed.

  The structure of the NSM-MIB reflects the coherent behavior of 
  applications in conjunction with the network service on which the
  applications rely.
  

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  The NSM-MIB definitions consists of the following objects.
   * "applTable" provides information on the networked application. For
     instance, the name of the application, the number of inbound and
     outbound connections.
   * "assocTable" provides information on the associations with the 
     other/remote applications. For instance, the remote address and 
     the duration.



3.5 The X.500 Directory Monitoring MIB


  The X.500 Directory Monitoring MIB (DSA-MIB) is designed to manage a 
  Directory Systems Agent (DSA), a component of the OSI Directory 
  Framework. The MIB allows managers to monitor operational aspects and
  performance of a DSA. The DSA-MIB is an application specific and 
  relies on the NSM-MIB.
  
  
  The structure of the DSA-MIB reflects only the DSA-applications 
  specific parts in 3 defined object groups the DSA operations, the 
  DSA statistics and cache performance and the interaction with peer 
  DSAs.
 
  The DSA-MIB definitions consist of the following objects.
  * "dsaOpsTable" provides the summary information on accesses, 
    operations and errors occurred within the DSA.
  * "dsaEntriesTable" provides statistical and cache performance 
    information on DSA applications.
  * "dsaIntTable" provides some information on interactions done with 
    their respective peer DSAs. These interaction are done in the past
    by the monitored DSAs.



3.6 The Host Resources MIB

  The Host Resources MIB (HR-MIB) contains a set of management objects 
  useful for hosts system. The term 'host' refers to any type of 
  computer connected with other computers via a network. Although 
  MIB-II is especially defined for the protocol stacks used in the 
  host, the HR-MIB supplies additional information on the hardware,
  operating system, installed and running software.

  The HR-MIB is structured by three hardware groups ("hrSystem", 
  "hrStorage" and "hrDevice") and three software groups ("hrSWRun", 
  "hrSWRunPerf" and "hrSWInstalled").

  NOTE: The operating system is seen as having both hardware and
  software components.




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  The Hardware Groups
  --- -------- ------

  The system group, "hrSystem", provides additional system information
  besides the system group of MIB-II. The group provides general 
  hardware variables and OS parameters.

  The definitions consists of the following scalars.
    * "hrSystemUpTime" provides the amount of time since the host was
      last initialized. The difference with the "sysUpTime" is that the
      "hrSystemUpTime" provides the host up time and the "sysUpTime" 
      the SNMP-entity uptime.
    * "hrSystemDate" provides the date and time of the system.
    * "hrSystemInitialLoadDevice" provides a pointer to the device in
      the "hrDevicetable" from which the system is booted.
    * "hrSystemInitialLoadParameters" provides the parameters with 
      which the system is booted.
    * "hrSystemNumUsers" provides the number of user on the system.
    * "hrSystemProcesses" provides the number of processes currently 
      loaded or running

    * "hrSystemMaxProcesses" provides the maximum number of processes
      which the context can support.

  The storage group, "hrStorage", describes all logical components 
  which can store data. The group definitions abstracts from the 
  implemented storage techniques; it only provides a clustering of 
  those techniques.

  The group definitions consist of:
    * the definitions of storage types, "hrStorageTypes". For instance,
      the type `floppy-disc' is defined.
    * "hrMemorySize" provides the amount of main memory contained by 
      the system.
    * "hrStorageTable" provides information of all data storage 
      components of the system. For example, if the system contains a
      floppy-disc the storage table has an entry describing that 
      floppy-disc.


  The device group, "hrDevice", contains information of all hardware 
  components of the system. This group is useful for identifying and 
  diagnosing faulty devices on a system.

  The group definitions consist of the following objects:
    * the definitions of device types, "hrDeviceTypes". For instance, 
      types are defined for processor and co-processor.
    * "hrDeviceTable" provides general information on the devices such
      as type, description and status. The table also references if a
      more detailed table of the device is available.
    * "hrProcessorTable" provides additional information on the device
      type "hrDeviceProcessor".
    * "hrNetworkTable" provides the relationship between the network 
      devices of the "hrDeviceTable" and the associating interface in

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      the "ifTable".
    * "hrPrintertable" provides additional information on printer 
      devices.
    * "hrDiskStorageTable" provides additional type information on the 
      disk storage devices.
    * "hrPartitionsTable" provides information on partitions in a 
      storage device used for long-term storage in a system.
    * "hrFSTable" provides information on the local or remotely mounted
      file system components. 
    * the definitions of file system types ("hrFSTypes"). For instance,
      the Andrew file system and Windows NT file system.


  The Software Groups
  --- -------- ------

  The software groups define management information on the software 
  used in the system. The information provided is grouped in (1) the
  currently running, (2) the performance and (3) the installed 
  applications.

  The software run group, "hrSWRun", contains information of each
  software part that is running or loaded into the physical or virtual
  memory in preparation of running.

  The group definitions consist of the following objects:
    * "hrSWOSIndex" provides the index of the entry of the
      "hrSWRunTable" which represents the operating system.
    * "hrSWRunTable" provides detailed information on each piece of 
      software which runs or will be loaded in preparation of running
      on the system.


  The software run performance group, "hrSWRunPerf", consists of 
  objects providing the performance of the running software.

  The group consists of one table:
    * "hrSWRunTable" provides performance information on every piece of
      software running on the system. The entries of the table are link
      to the "hrSWRunTable" by "hrSWRunIndex".


  The HR software installed group, "hrSWInstalled", is useful for
  identifying and inventoring software installed on the system. This
  does not include software loadable remotely from the network.


  The group definitions consist of the following objects:
    * "hrSWInstalledlastChange" provides the "sysUpTime" of the last 
      change of an entry in the "hrSWInstalledtable".
    * "hrSWInstalledlastChange" provides the "sysUpTime" of the last 
      complete change of the "hrSWInstalledtable".
    * "hrSWinstalledTable" provides information on the installed 
      software.

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3.7 The Relational Database Management System MIB

  The Relational Database Management System MIB (RDBMS-MIB) consists of
  a set of management objects for relational databases. In this MIB a
  separation is made between a database which is seen as a collection
  of interrelated data organized according a relational schema and an
  entity which provides access to the database, termed the database
  server. The database server may exist independently of the database,
  but this condition is not required. The server can be seen as an 
  extra layer with a well defined API through which the data is 
  accessed.


  The structure of the RDBMS-MIB reflects the separation of (1) the 
  database - where the actual data is stored - , (2) the server - 
  access mechanism to the data and (3) the relationship between a
  database and an access mechanism.


  The Database Group
  --- -------- -----

  Meaningful information on the databases installed on the system.

  The group consists of the following 4 tables:
    * "rdbmsDbTable" provides the general management information on the
      database. General parameters such as vendor name and contact for
      the database.
    * "rdbmsDbInfoTable" provides administrative information required
      when the database is actively opened on a host.
    * "rdbmsDbParamTable" describes the parameter for the configuration
      of the database (This table describes on a per entry basis for 
      each parameter).
    * "rdbmsDbLimitedResourceTable" provides the limitations in 
      resources per database (The provision of this information may 
      only be done if the database is in operation (actively open)).


  The Database Server Group
  --- -------- ------ -----

  This group provides more detailed information on the servers used for
  accessing of the databases:

  The group consists of the following 4 tables:
    * "rdbmsSrvTable" provides general administrative information on 
      running or installed database servers on a system.
    * "rdbmsSrvInfoTable" provides database server  specific 
      information which requires additional semantics then defined in
      the "applTable" of the NSM-MIB. (An entry may only available in
      this table if the associated "applOperStatus" has the value 
      "up(1)").
    * "rdbmsSrvParamTable" provides the configuration parameters of the

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       database server.
    * "rdbmsSrvLimitedResourceTable" provides the limitations of 
      resources used by the database server.


  The Relations Group
  --- --------- -----

  A relationship between database servers and databases is not uniquely 
  defined. The design of the MIB allows cross connections between 
  different databases and database servers.

  The group consists of the following object:
    * "rdbmsRelTable" provides the relationship by the index of the
      "rdbmsDbIndex" and the "applTable". the supported relationships
      are 1:1, 1:many, many:1 and many:many. The table also provides
      the status of the relationship.


  Traps
  -----

  Two traps are defined to inform the manager of urgent matters 
  concerning databases.

  The following traps can be generated:
    * "rdbmsStateChange" provides that a certain relationship between a
      database server and a database has hanged in state and the state 
      change made it less accessible for use.
    * "rdbmsOutOfSpace" provides that one of the databases is unable to 
      allocate more space for its operation.



4 The overlapping objects of the MIBs


  All of the surveyed MIBs in this document define managed objects for
  applications. That makes it possible to have certain overlaps 
  duplications in their defintions. This section describes duplications
  or overlaps recognized between the surveyed MIBs. 
  
  NOTE: Whenever there is an overlap or duplication recognized between
  MIBs both are are mentioned in the title of the section. In these 
  sections is then a detailed comparison made on scalar- or 
  columnar-object level (the managed objects). The arrows between the
  objects express the relation and scaled in a certain level. If an
  arrow is draw with a '=' symbol object objects can be seen as equal. 
  If an '~' symbol is used there is no real duplication, but only more
  detail is provided. It is also possible that multiple object can 
  express something similar than other objects.

  


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4.1 The SYSAPPL-MIB and the HR-MIB.

    
  The SYSAPPL-MIB provides information on installed applications and 
  monitoring of processes which are running or have been running on a 
  system. Basically the software groups of the HR-MIB provide the same 
  kind of information. Both do not require instrumentation of 
  applications in order to populate the MIBs.
  Therefore, both MIBs could be interchanged without loosing the
  ability to manage the processes/applications in a system. However,
  there is also a huge difference between both MIBs. The HR-MIB also 
  provides information on hardware, not available in the SYSAPPL-MIB. 


  The Installed Software
  --- --------- --------

  The "hrSWInstalledTable" is somehow a subset of the 
  "sysApplCfgElmtTable". The reasoning behind this is that the 
  "hrSWInstalledTable" has an entry for each installed piece of 
  runnable software which is also provided by the 
  "sysApplCfgElmntTable", but the "sysApplCfgElmntTable" has also
  information of non runnable elements of an applications. Below a
  detailed comparison at the level of the objects instances is shown
  in figure 1.

  SYSAPPL-MIB                               HR-MIB

  sysApplInstalledTable                     hrSWInstalledLastChange
    sysApplInstalledEntry                   hrSWInstalledLastUpdateTime
      sysApplInstalledIndex<----------+     hrSWInstalledTable
      sysApplInstalledManufacturer<-+ |       hrSWInstalledEntry
      sysApplInstalledProductName<--+ +-- = --->hrSWInstalledIndex
      sysApplInstalledVersion<------+ |      +->hrSWInstalledName
      sysApplInstalledSerialNumber<-+-|-- ~ -+->hrSWInstalledID
      sysApplInstalledDate<-------+ | | +- = -->hrSWInstalledType
      sysApplInstalledLocation    +------ ~ --->hrSWInstalledDate
                                  | | | |
  sysApplInstallElmtTable         | | | |
    sysApplInstallElmtEntry       | | | |
      sysApplInstallElmtIndex<----|---+ |
      sysApplInstallElmtName<-----|-+   |
      sysApplInstallElmtType<-----|-----+
      sysApplInstallElmtDate<-----+
      sysApplInstallElmtPath
      sysApplInstallElmtSize
      sysApplInstallElmtRole
      sysApplInstallElmtModifyDate

  Figure 1: Installed package overlap of the SYSAPPL-MIB and HR-MIB.

  Although the HR-MIB has two objects to provide a time indication of 
  the change in the "hrSWInstaledTable", the information can be seen
  as a subset provided of the SYSAPPL-MIB.

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  The Running Processes
  --- ------- ---------

  The "sysApplRunTable" and the "sysApplElmntRunTable" of the 
  SYSAPPL-MIB and the "hrSWRunTable" of the HR-MIB provide information
  about the running processes. In grounds the "hrSWRunTable" provides
  the same information as the "sysApplRunTable". The difference is 
  that in the SYSAPPL-MIB the running processes can also be grouped
  into (if the information is available) applications built of 
  multiple processes, through the "sysApplRunTable". Thus, a 
  conclusion could be that the "hrSWOSRunTable" could be obsoleted and
  replaced by the associated objects of the SYSAPPL-MIB.

  SYSAPPL-MIB                                HR-MIB

  sysApplRunTable                            hrSWOSIndex
    sysApplRunEntry
      sysApplRunIndex                        hrSWRunTable
      sysApplRunInstalledIndex                 hrSWRunEntry
      sysApplRunLastStarted      +-------------->hrSWRunIndex
      sysApplRunCurrentState     |               hrSWRunName
      sysApplRunEnded            |               hrSWRunID
                                 |  +----------->hrSWRunPath
  sysApplElmtRunTable            |  |  +-------->hrSWRunParameters
    sysApplElmtRunEntry          |  |  |         hrSWRunType
      sysApplElmtRunInvocID<- ~ -+  |  |  +----->hrSWRunStatus
      sysApplElmtRunIndex           |  |  |
      sysApplElmtRunInstallID       =  =  ~
      sysApplElmtRunTimeStarted     |  |  |
      sysApplElmtRunState<----------------+
      sysApplElmtRunName<-----------+  | 
      sysApplElmtRunParameters<--------+ 
      sysApplElmtRunCPU
      sysApplElmtRunMemory
      sysApplElmtRunNumTCon
      sysApplElmtRunNumFiles

  Figure 2: Running processes overlap of the SYSAPPL-MIB and HR-MIB.


  The figure above shows that there isn't a complete overlap or 
  duplication, but certain information can be retrieved otherwise. The
  "hrSWRunType" expresses for instance whether the process of the entry
  is running. This sort of information can also be retrieved from the
  SYSAPPL-MIB. In that MIB the process is in the "sysApplElmtRunTable"
  or "sysApplElmtPastRunTable". One difference is that in the HR-MIB 
  you can set the type to `invalid' causing that it is unloaded from 
  the system. This is not possible in the SYSAPPL-MIB.
  The "hrSWRunName" and "hrSWRunID" do not have similar objects in the
  run groups of the SYSAPPL-MIB, but this information can be retrieved
  from the SYSAPPL-MIB through the "sysApplElmtRunInstallID", which 
  points to the "sysApplInstallElmtTable".
  

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  Although the overlap is here not direct recognisable, the software
  run group is contained by the more recent SYSAPPL-MIB. The exception
  is the "hrSWOSIndex" providing the index of the process which 
  instantiates the OS (kernel).


4.2 The SYSAPPL-MIB and the NSM-MIB.

  The NSM-MIB provides a subset of applications of the SYSAPPL-MIB. 
  That is, the subset consists of only those applications which have
  networked associations with other applications. Currently, the 
  SYSAPPL-MIB is defined as the MIB with which the basic management
  operations can be done in respect of applications management. 
  Strangely enough the NSM-MIB is the same, but the only for networked
  applications. The overlap between these MIBs consists of some general
  administrative data and some basic objects providing some running 
  information.


  The Administrative Application Objects
  --- -------------- ----------- -------
  
  Since both MIBs are seen as the basis and generic platform on which
  other MIBs should be based, both define some administrative managed
  objects. In fact, there is no complete overlap, only partial overlap
  as it can be seen from figure 3.

  SYSAPPL-MIB                          NSM-MIB

  sysApplInstalledTable                applTable
    sysApplInstalledEntry                applEntry
      sysApplInstalledIndex                applIndex
      sysApplInstalledManufacturer      +->applName
      sysApplInstalledProductName<-+ ~ -+->applDirectoryName
      sysApplInstalledVersion<-----|-- = ->applVersion
      sysApplInstalledSerialNumber |       applUptime
      sysApplInstalledDate         |       applOperStatus
      sysApplInstalledLocation<----+       applLastChange
                                   |       applInboundAssociations
  sysApplInstallElmtTable          |       applOutboundAssociations
    sysApplInstallElmtEntry        |       applAccumulatedInboundAss..
      sysApplInstallElmtIndex      |       applAccumulatedOutboundAss..
      sysApplInstallElmtName<------+       applLastInboundActivity
      sysApplInstallElmtType               applLastOutboundActivity
      sysApplInstallElmtDate               applRejectedInboundAssoc..
      sysApplInstallElmtPath               applFailedOutboundAssiations
      sysApplInstallElmtSize               applDescription
      sysApplInstallElmtRole               applURL

  Figure 3: Administrative overlap of the SYSAPPL-MIB and NSM-MIB.





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  The Overlap Of Runtime Objects
  --- ------- -- ------- -------
  
  Since both MIBs are seen as the basis and generic platform on which 
  other MIBs should be based, both define some administrative managed 
  objects. In fact, there is no complete overlap only partial overlap
  which can be seen in the figure 4.

  SYSAPPL-MIB                            NSM-MIB

  sysApplRunTable                        applTable
    sysApplRunEntry                        applEntry
      sysApplRunIndex                        applIndex
      sysApplRunInstalledIndex               applName
      sysApplRunLastStarted<----------+      applDirectoryName
      sysApplRunCurrentState<-------+ |      applVersion
                                    | +- ~ ->applUptime
  sysApplElmtRunTable               +--- ~ ->applOperStatus
    sysApplElmtRunEntry             | |      applLastChange
      sysApplElmtRunInvocId         | |      applInboundAssociations
      sysApplElmtRunIndex           | |      applOutboundAssociations
      sysApplElmtRunInstallID       | |      applAccumulatedInbound..
      sysApplElmtRunTimeStarted<----|-+      applAccumulatedOutbound..
      sysApplElmtRunState<----------+        applLastInboundActivity
      sysApplElmtRunName                     applLastOutboundActivity
      sysApplElmtRunParameters               applRejectedInbound..
      sysApplElmtRunCPU                      applFailedOutbound..
      sysApplElmtRunMemory                   applDescription
      sysApplElmtRunNumTCon                  applURL
      sysApplElmtRunNumFiles

  Figure 4: Runtime overlap of the SYSAPPL-MIB and NSM-MIB.


  Overlap in runtime information exists only for the objects expressing
  the state of the application and time it is running.

  

4.3 The HR-MIB and the NSM-MIB.


  The Host Resources MIB was the early start in which managed objects 
  are defined to manage applications. In relation with the NSM they 
  both provide management information of applications/software. The 
  HR-MIB does this with respect to the running processes and the 
  installed software in the system. The NSM-MIB shows only a part of 
  this information with the extension of network related issues. The 
  overlap consists only in some general administrative objects 
  describing the application.





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  HR-MIB                           NSM-MIB

  hrSWOSIndex                      applTable
                                     applEntry
  hrSWRunTable                         applIndex
    hrSWRunEntry              +--- ~ ->applName
      hrSWRunIndex          +----- = ->applDirectoryName
      hrSWRunName<----------|-+ +- ~ ->applVersion
      hrSWRunID<------------|-|-+      applUptime
      hrSWRunPath<----------+ | |      applOperStatus
      hrSWRunParameters       | |      applLastChange
      hrSWRunType             | |      applInboundAssociations
                              | |      applOutboundAssociations
  hrSWInstalledLastChange     | |      applAccumulatedInboundAss..
                              | |      applAccumulatedOutboundAss..
  hrSWInstalledLastUpdateTime | |      applLastInboundActivity
                              | |      applLastOutboundActivity
  hrSWInstalledTable          | |      applRejectedInboundAssociations
    hrSWInstalledentry        | |      applFailedOutboundAssociations
      hrSWInstalledIndex      | |      applDescription
      hrSWInstalledName<------+ |      applURL
      hrSWInstalledID<----------+       
      hrSWInstalledType           
      hrSWInstalledDate
      
  Figure 5: Runtime overlap of the HR-MIB and NSM-MIB.


4.4 The WWW-MIB and the SYSAPPL-MIB


  The WWW-MIB is defined at almost the same period as the SYSAPPL-MIB.
  Therefore, certain objects can be overlapping or redundant. This is 
  due to changes made to the SYSAPPL-MIB. Both MIBs have more groups, 
  but the only groups with some overlap are the "wwwSystem" and the 
  "sysApplInstalled" group.

  WWW-MIB                              SYSAPPL-MIB

  wwwEntityTable                       sysApplInstalledTable
    wwwEntityEntry                       sysApplInstalledEntry
      wwwEntityDescription<------+         sysApplInstalledIndex
      wwwEntityContact           +-- ~ --->sysApplInstalledManufacturer
      wwwEntityProtocol          +-- ~ --->sysApplInstalledProductName
      wwwEntityProtocolVersion   +-- ~ --->sysApplInstalledVersion
      wwwEntityName                        sysApplInstalledSerialNumber
      wwwEntityAddress                     sysApplInstalledDate
      wwwEntityType                        sysApplInstalledLocation
      wwwEntityUptime
      wwwEntityOperStatus
      wwwEntityLastChange

  Figure 6: Administrative overlap of the WWW-MIB and SYSAPPL-MIB.
                              

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  As seen above (in figure 6) there is no big overlap in information.
  Only a sort of summarizing object within the WWW-MIB to describe an
  installed package.


4.5 The WWW-MIB and the NSM-MIB


  These MIBs are related since they both provide network management 
  information concerning network traffic with a certain underlying 
  services.


  The Administrative Objects
  --- -------------- -------

  In the tables which describe the general information only the version
  describing objects can be seen as overlapping. This is not completely 
  true, because an application can have a total different version then
  its protocol. Also a newer version of an application can still 
  implement the same protocol version.

  WWW-MIB                               NSM-MIB

  wwwEntityTable                        applTable
    wwwEntityEntry                        applEntry
      wwwEntityDescription<-------+         applIndex
      wwwEntityContact            +--- ~ -->applName
      wwwEntityProtocol<----------+         applDirectoryName
      wwwEntityName               +--- ~ -->applVersion
      wwwEntityType          +-------- = -->applUptime
      wwwEntityUpTime<-------+   +---- = -->applOperStatus
      wwwEntityOperStatus<-------+   + = -->applLastChange
      wwwEntityLastChange<-----------+      applInboundAssociations
                                            applOutboundAssociations
                                            applAccumulatedInboundAs..
                                            applAccumulatedOutboundAs..
                                            applLastInboundActivity
                                            applLastOutboundActivity
                                            applRejectedInboundAss..
                                            applFailedOutboundAss..
                                            applDescription
                                            applURL

  Figure 7: Administrative overlap of the WWW-MIB and NSM-MIB.
  
  The "wwwEntityTable" defines more detail on the networked 
  application. Overlap does not really exists. In the "wwwEntityTable"
  is an entry uniquely defined through its Fully Qualified Domain Name
  which is not reuiqred for the applTable.
    
  
  
  

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  The Network Traffic Objects
  --- ------- ------- -------

  The overlap at the network traffic level is far obvious. Within the
  WWW-MIB a summary table is providing a quick view of the network 
  traffic. This is almost similar to the network information which is
  provided by the application table of the NSM-MIB.

  WWW-MIB                              NSM-MIB

  wwwSummaryTable                       applTable
    wwwSummaryEntry                       applEntry
      wwwSummaryInRequests<----+            applIndex
      wwwSummaryOutRequest<------+          applName
      wwwSummaryInResponses<---+ |          applDirectoryName
      wwwSummaryOutResponses<----+          applVersion
      wwwSummaryInBytes        | |          applUptime
      wwwSummaryOutBytes       | |          applOperStatus
                               | |          applLastChange
                               | |          applInboundAssociations
                               | |          applOutboundAssociations
                               +-|- (sum) ->applAccumulatedInboundAs..
                                 +- (sum) ->applAccumulatedOutboundAs..
                                            applLastInboundActivity
                                            applLastOutboundActivity
                                            applRejectedInboundAss..
                                            applFailedOutboundAss..
                                            applDescription
                                            applURL

  Figure 8: Network traffic overlap of the WWW-MIB and NSM-MIB.

  All indexes could be coupled between both MIBs. The difference is 
  that the WWW-MIB is much more detailed information concerning the 
  used document transfer protocol. This is due to the fact that the 
  WWW-MIB describes network management information for the instantiated
  protocol providing a certain service. On the contrary, the NS-MIB 
  defines the network management information of the provided service 
  and abstract from protocol issues.

  The relation between the WWW MIB and the NSM MIB isnot very explicit 
  and built on the fact that a certain service is provided both by a 
  protocol and an underlying service ( a stack of protocol layers).  
  Although entities and services are distributed, these MIBs define 
  only information for one specific point (address/ host). To fill the
  gap for the remote relations/ connections the NSM-MIB has an 
  association table in which the information of the current connections
  are kept.

  In a certain way the network service information at a service access
  point can be seen as a summary of the underlying protocol 
  information.


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4.6 The WWWW-MIB and the HR-MIB


  The overlap between the WWW-MIB and the HR MIB is similar as between
  the WWW-MIB and the SYSAPPL-MIB. 

  WWW-MIB                                  HR-MIB

  wwwEntityTable                           hrSWOSIndex
    wwwEntityEntry
      wwwEntityDescription<--------+       hrSWRunTable
      wwwEntityContact             |         hrSWRunEntry
      wwwEntityProtocol<-----------+           hrSWRunIndex
      wwwEntityName                +--- ~ ---->hrSWRunName
      wwwEntityType                |           hrSWRunID
      wwwEntityUpTime              |           hrSWRunPath
      wwwEntityOperStatus          |           hrSWRunParameters
      wwwEntityLastChange          |           hrSWRunType
                                   |           hrSWRunStatus
                                   |
                                   |       hrSWInstalledTable
                                   |        hrSWInstalledEntry
                                   |           hrSWInstalledIndex
                                   +--- ~ ----->hrSWInstalledName
                                                hrSWInstalledID
                                                hrSWInstalledType
                                                hrSWInstalledDate

  Figure 9: Administrative overlap of the WWW-MIB and HR-MIB.

  Some way all indexes could be coupled, but the Host Resources 
  Software tables are similar to the system application MIB. Therefore,
  I propose that no links towards this MIB will be added. If the HR-MIB
  will be implemented the Software parts (which are optional) will not
  be implemented.


5. Relationships/Indexing between managed objects.


  Managed objects or groupings of managed objects (such as entries) are 
  sometimes related. The most common technique to relate such objects 
  is indexing. The index is an auxiliar managed object which uniquely 
  identifies a group of objects (entry). If another group of objects is 
  related you can use the same index value and they are all uniquely 
  related. 
  The other technique is the use of pointers which are managed objects 
  referring to a managed object by containing an object identifier or 
  unique `reference' number. This technique can be used if there is a 
  possibility that the referred object/entry doesn't exist.
  In this section all the index links, pointers within one of the 
  surveyed MIBs or between two of them are described. Mostly these 
  pointers or indexes are quite straightforward, but it provides also 

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  great difficulties for agent implementors to implement all the 
  indexes and pointers in the correct way.

  NOTE: The managed objects preceeded by '*' are indexes and preceeded 
  by an '&' are pointers. The arrows indicate the indexes or pointers 
  between the managed objects. In a table where '(no object)' is used 
  is no object defined there, but the value of the referred object is 
  used. In this 
  internet-draft such links are called 'direct index'. 


5.1 The SYSAPPL-MIB.


  The SYSAPPL-MIB has no external indexes or pointers. The reason is
  that the SYSAPPL-MIB is the generic MIB for management of 
  applications. Other MIBs should refer to the SYSAPPL-MIB and the 
  SYSAPPL-MIB in the centre aroung the application specific MIBs should
  be implemented. The internal indexes shown in the following figure 
  10. (The MIB prefix "sysAppl" is deleted for the columnar objects)


  +-------------------------+               +-------------------------+
  |sysApplInstallPkgTable   |               |sysApplInstallElmtTable  |
  +-------------------------+               +-------------------------+
  |* InstallPkgIndex        |<----+---<----<------ (no object)        |
  |                         |     ^  +------>* InstallElmtIndex       |
  |                         |     |  |      |                         |
  +-------------------------+     |  ^      +-------------------------+
                                  |  |
                                  ^  |
  +-------------------------+     |  |      +-------------------------+
  |sysApplRunTable          |     |  ^      |sysApplRunElmtTable      |
  +-------------------------+     |  |      +-------------------------+
  |    (no object)    ----------->+<---------* ElmtRunInvocID         |
  |* RunIndex               |     ^  |      |* ElmtRunIndex           |
  |                         |     |  +----<----ElmtRunInstallID       |
  +-------------------------+     |  ^      +-------------------------+
                                  |  |
                                  ^  |
  +-------------------------+     |  |      +-------------------------+
  |sysApplRunPastTable      |     |  ^      |sysApplRunPastElmtTable  |
  +-------------------------+     |  |      +-------------------------+
  |    (no object)    ----------->+<---------* ElmtPastRunInvocID     |
  |* PastRunIndex           |        |      |* ElmtPastRunIndex       |
  |                         |        +----<----ElmtPastRunInstallID   |
  +-------------------------+               +-------------------------+

  Figure 10: Links within the SYSAPPL-MIB.

  As figure 10 (above) shows, all indexes (except one) are made with 
  pointers. The reason for this is that in the RunTables and 
  RunPastTables every process should be shown and if possible grouped 
  by application. The direct index is only possible between the 

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  "sysApplInstallPackageTable" and the "sysApplInstallElementTable" 
  because it is not required that every process is registered within 
  an "sysApplInstallPackageTable".


  A problem with this MIB (especially under an implementing point of
  view) is the grouping of the elements into a composite application.
  This could be done by reading the element organisation from a 
  configuration file. The configuration file should also provide the
  information on what element is from which application during runtime.
  The element could be a part of an already started application (an
  entry already exists in the "sysApplRunTable") or a complete new 
  application (a new entry has to be inserted in the 
  "sysApplRunTable").
  
  

  +-------------------------+
  |sysApplMapTable          |
  +-------------------------+             +-------------------------+
  | (no object)    ---------->-----+      |sysApplInstallElmtTable  |
  | (no object)    ----------<-----|--+   +-------------------------+
  | (no object)    ----------<--------|-<-- * InstallElmtIndex      |
  | MapInstallElmntIndex  ----->+  |  |   |                         |
  +-------------------------+   |  ^  ^   +-------------------------+
                                |  |  |
                                V  |  |
  +-------------------------+   |  |  |   +-------------------------+
  |sysApplInstallElmtTable  |   |  ^  ^   |sysApplRunElmtTable      |
  +-------------------------+   V  |  |   +-------------------------+
  |* sysApplInstallPkgIndex <---+  |  +<--- * ElmtRunInvocID        |
  |* RunIndex               |      +------- * ElmtRunIndex          |
  |                         |             |                         | 
  +-------------------------+             +-------------------------+
  
    Figure 11: Links sysApplMapTable.
    
  Although the linkage for this table is very complex, it provides
  the manager an easy mapping between running elements and the 
  installed elements. The burden for this table is, therefore,
  put in the SNMP-agent and not in the SNMP-manager application.














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5.2  The Application Management MIB

  The Application Management MIB provides the management information
  per running element for which it requires instrumentation inside
  the running element.

    +-----------------------------------------+
    |nsmToSysApplElmtRunTable                 |
    +-----------------------------------------+
    |* nsmToSysApplElmtRunIndex               |
    |  nsmToSysApplElmtRunApplIndex           <----------------+
    |  nsmToSysApplElmtRunSysApplRunIndex     <-----------+    |
    |  nsmToSysApplElmtRunSysApplRunElmtIndex <------+    |    |
    |                                         |      |    |    |
    +-----------------------------------------+      |    |    |
                                                     |    |    |
   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +     |    |    |
                                   SYSAPPL-MIB |     |    |    |
    +------------------------+                       |    |    |
    |sysApplRunElmtTable     |                 |     |    |    |
    +------------------------+                       |    |    |
    |* sysApplRunElmtIndex ----->----------->--|-----+    |    |
    |                        |                            |    |
    +------------------------+                 |          |    |
                                                          |    |
    +------------------------+                 |          |    |
    |sysApplRunTable         |                            |    |
    +------------------------+                 |          |    |
    |* sysApplRunIndex     ----->----------->-------------+    |
    |                        |                 |               |
    +------------------------+                                 |
                                               |               |
   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +               |
                                       NSM-MIB                 |
    +------------------------+                 |               |
    |applTable               |                                 |
    +------------------------+                 |               |
    |* applIndex           ----->----------->------------------+
    |                        |                 |
    +------------------------+
   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
   
    Figure 12: The relationships with the SYSAPPL-MIB and NSM-MIB.


  The indexing scheme within this MIB relies on the existance of the 
  "sysapplElmtRunIndex" of the SYSAPPL-MIB. Therefore, it is required 
  to at least implement this object. Seen from the goals for as well 
  the SYSAPPL-MIB as the Application Management MIB you should 
  use/implement the framework which exists of the indexing scheme.
  An overview of the relationships of the Application Management MIB
  is given in Figure 13.

  As seen in the MIB definitions of the Application MIB most of the

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  tables are combined for counter of both Counter32 and Counter64
  application types. It is the editor's view that in order to create
  less overhead and a more clearly structure the tables should be
  split in a table defining the Counter32 counters and a table for 
  the Counter64 counters. The Implementor should teh be able to choose
  via MODULE-COMPLIANCE statements which complaince he selects.
  of course, this choice depends highly on the used SNMP version
  and the architecture the MIB is implemented on.


                              |
  +------------------------+                +-------------------------+
  |sysApplElmtRunTable     |  |             |applOpenFileTable        |
  +------------------------+                +-------------------------+
  |* sysApplElmtRunIndex   |<-|------+--<---< -----(no object)        |
  |                        |         ^   +-->* applOpenFileId         |
  +------------------------+  |  +---------->  applOpenFileName       |
                 SYSAPPL-MIB     |   |   |  |                         |
 - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - +  |   |   |  +-------------------------+
                                 |   |   |
  +------------------------+     ^   |   |
  |applOpenFileXRefTable   |     |   |   |  +-------------------------+
  +------------------------+     |   |   |  |applOpenConnectionTable  |
  |  (no object)         --->--->+   |   |  +-------------------------+
  |  (no object)         ----->----->+<--|--- (no object)             |
  |  (no object)         ----->----------+  |* applOpenIndex          |
  |                        |         |      |                         |
  +------------------------+         |      +-------------------------+
                                     |
  +-----------------------------+    ^      +-------------------------+
  |applExConnectionControlTable |    |      |applExConnectionTable    |
  +-----------------------------+    |      +-------------------------+
  |  (no object)         ----->----->+<---<--- (no object)            |
  |                             |    |      |* applExConnectionId     |
  +-----------------------------+    |      |                         |
                                     |      +-------------------------+
                                     |
  +----------------------------+     ^    +---------------------------+
  |applTransactionControlTable |     |    |applTransactionStreamTable |
  +----------------------------+     |    +---------------------------+
  |  (no object)         ----->----->+<----- (no object)              |
  |* applTransactionStreamId <-------------- (no object)              |
  |                            |     |    |                           |
  +----------------------------+     |    +---------------------------+
                                     |
  +----------------------------+     ^    +---------------------------+
  |applAlmtRunStatusTable      |     |    |applElmtRunControlTable    |
  +----------------------------+     |    +---------------------------+
  |  (no object)         ----->----->+<------ (no object)             |
  |                            |          |                           |
  +----------------------------+          +---------------------------+

   Figure 13: The Application Management MIB indexing scheme.


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5.3  The WWW-MIB.
  
  The WWW-MIB is a specific MIB of a network and distributed 
  application (in the sense of the NSM-MIB), but it is also an normal
  application (in terms of the SYSAPPL-MIB). And since both generic 
  application MIBs lack consistency in there defintions of an 
  application, the core of the WWW-MIB is made independently of both
  MIBs.
 
 
  +------------------------+                +-------------------------+
  |wwwEntityTable          |                |wwwSummaryTable          |
  +------------------------+                +-------------------------+
  |* wwwEntityIndex        |<------+--<---<-----(no object)           |
  |                        |       ^        |                         |
  +------------------------+       |        +-------------------------+
                                   |
  +------------------------+       ^        +-------------------------+
  |wwwRequestInTable       |       |        |wwwRequestOutTable       |
  +------------------------+       |        +-------------------------+
  |  (no object)         ----->--->+<---<------- (no object)          |
  |* wwwRequestInIndex     |       |        |* wwwRequestOutIndex     |
  |                        |       |        |                         |
  +------------------------+       |        +-------------------------+
                                   |
  +------------------------+       ^        +-------------------------+
  |wwwResponseInTable      |       |        |wwwResponseOutTable      |
  +------------------------+       |        +-------------------------+
  |  (no object)         ----->--->+<---<------- (no object)          |
  |* wwwResponseInIndex    |       |        |* wwwresponseOutIndex    |
  |                        |       |        |                         |
  +------------------------+       |        +-------------------------+
                                   |    
  +------------------------+       ^        +-------------------------+
  |wwwDocCtrlTable         |       |        |wwwDocLastNTable         |
  +------------------------+       |        +-------------------------+
  |  (no object)         ----->--->+<---<-------- (no object)         |
  |                        |       |        |* wwwDocLastNIndex       |
  |                        |       |        |                         |
  +------------------------+       |        +-------------------------+
                                   |    
  +------------------------+       ^        +-------------------------+
  |wwwDocBucketTable       |       |        |wwwDocBucketTopNTable    |
  +------------------------+       |        +-------------------------+
  |  (no object)         ----->--->+<--<-------- (no object)          |
  |* wwwDocBucketIndex     |                |* wwwDocBucketTopNIndex  |
  |                        |                |                         |
  +------------------------+                +-------------------------+

 
  Figure 14: Links within the core of the WWW-MIB.
  
  

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  In the latest version of the WWW-MIB is the defined relationship
  (with "applIndex") taken away and a internal indexing scheme is 
  used. This solution is choosen because the NSM-MIB is not precise
  enough in what is a networked service and how can they be 
  distinguished. This solution benefits also that no instrumentation
  is required from the NSM-MIB to implement the WWW-MIB.
 
  
5.4 The NSM-MIB
  

  This MIB does not have pointers to other MIBs, due to its generic
  nature for management of networked applications. Compared with the
  SYSAPPL-MIB the NSM-MIB is much simpler, consisting only of two 
  tables. One of the tables provides more detailed information on the
  application and the other tables provides the associations with 
  remote (other) applications. Figure 15 shows the internal linking
  structure of the NSM-MIB.


  +------------------------+                +-------------------------+
  |applTable               |                |assocTable               |
  +------------------------+                +-------------------------+
  |* applIndex             |<------<------<------  (no object)        |
  |                        |                |* assocIndex             |
  |                        |                |                         |
  +------------------------+                +-------------------------+

  Figure 15: Links within the NSM MIB.



5.5  The X.500 DSA-MIB.

  This MIB consists of three tables providing application specific 
  information for a networked and distributed application. Therefore,
  the DSA MIB is connected to the NSM-MIB through the "applIndex". 

  As figure 17 shows (next page), the core of the WWW MIB is defined 
  without using external indexes. Previously, the indexing of the 
  WWW-MIB was done by means of the "applIndex" defined in the NSM-MIB.
  Due to no clear definitions used in the NSM-MIB and indexing 
  problems. The WWW-MIB will not be defined with the indexing scheme
  of the NSM-MIB. The problem is that unclaer definitions makes it 
  possible to have lots of non-unique relations between both MIBs. 
  During the implementation of the WWW-MIB the problem is how to 
  uniquely define the index. Questions such as "May I choose my own
  index number?" or "Is it required to implement the NSM-MIB?" can 
  be raised. Unfortenately, the SNMP-framework doesn't give an 
  concrete answer based on arguments consistent with the SNMP framework
  documents. A solution is only to implement the "applIndex" of the
  "applTable", due to the maximum access cluase of "not-accessible" the 
  "applIndex"-instance can never be retrieved.

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  +------------------------+                +-------------------------+
  |applTable               |    |           |dsaOpsTable              |
  +------------------------+                +-------------------------+
  |* applIndex             |<--------+<------(no object)              |
  |                        |         ^      |                         |
  +------------------------+    |    |      +-------------------------+
                         NSM-MIB     |
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +    |
                                     |
  +------------------------+         ^      +-------------------------+
  |dsaEntriesTable         |         |      |dsaIntTable              |
  +------------------------+         |      +-------------------------+
  |  (no object)         --->------->+<------- (no object)            |
  |                        |                |* dsaIntIndex            |
  |                        |                |                         |
  +------------------------+                +-------------------------+

  Figure 16: Links within the DSA MIB.
  
 
5.6  The HR-MIB.
  
  
  The Host resources MIB was one of the first MIBs for management of 
  applications or software on a host. It is generic and has 
  almost no external pointers. The only external pointer not internal 
  for this MIB is the "hrNetworkIfIndex", referring to the "ifIndex" of 
  the IF-MIB.

  Figure 17 (next page) shows a lot of links of indexes within the 
  HR-MIB. These links are quite straigthforward, except the 
  "hrNetworkIfIndex". The "hrNetworkIfIndex" links the network devices
  with the interfaces defined in the "iftable". Due to this two-step 
  link of a Device -> Network Device -> Interface, there is no 
  requirement for the "ifTable" to be implemented. In case the 
  "iftable" is not implemented the "hrNetworktable" can be left as
  not implemented.
















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  The hardware groups
  --- -------- ------
                                            +-------------------------+
                                            |hrDeviceTable            |
  +---------------------------+             +-------------------------+
  |hsSystemInitialLoadDevice  ----->+------->* hrDeviceIndex          |
  +---------------------------+     |       |                         |
                                    |       +-------------------------+
                                    |
  +------------------------+        |       +-------------------------+
  |hrStorageTable          |        |       |hrNetworkTable           |
  +------------------------+        |       +-------------------------+
  | (no object)        ------------>+<----------     (no object)      |
  |    index of table     <-----+   |   +----> hrNetworkIfIndex       |
  +------------------------+    |   |   |   +-------------------------+
                                |   |   |
  +------------------------+    |   |   |   +-------------------------+
  |hrProcessorTable        |    |   |   |   |hrDiskStorageTable       |
  +------------------------+    |   |   |   +-------------------------+
  | (no object)        ---------|-->+<--|-------     (no object)      |
  |                        |    |   ^   ^   |                         |
  +------------------------+    |   |   |   +-------------------------+
                                |   |   |
  +------------------------+    |   |   |   +-------------------------+
  |hrPrinterTable          |    |   |   |   |hrPartitionTable         |
  +------------------------+    |   |   |   +-------------------------+
  | (no object)        ---------|-->+<--|-------     (no object)      |
  |                        |    |       |   |* hrPartitionIndex       |
  |                        |    |   +---|----> hrPartitionFSIndex     |
  +------------------------+    |   |   |   +-------------------------+
                                |   |   |
                                |   |   | + - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
  +------------------------+    |   |   |   IF-MIB
  |hrFSTable               |    |   |   | |  -------------------------+
  +------------------------+    |   |   |   |interfaceTable           |
  |* hrFSIndex          <-------|---+   | | +-------------------------+
  |  hrFSStorageIndex   --------+       +----* ifIndex                |
  |                        |              | |                         |
  +------------------------+                +-------------------------+
                                          |

  Figure 17: Links of the hardware groups within the HR MIB.
  
  










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  The software groups
  --- -------- ------
                                            +-------------------------+
                                            |hrSWRunPerfTable         |
  +------------------------+                +-------------------------+
  |hrSWOSIndex         ------------>+------->*hrSWRunIndex            |
  +------------------------+        |       |                         |
                                    |       +-------------------------+
                                    ^
  +------------------------+        |       +-------------------------+
  |hrSWRunPerfTable        |        |       |hrSWInstalledTable       |
  +------------------------+        |       +-------------------------+
  | (no object)        ------------>+       |* hrSWInstalledIndex     |
  |                        |                |                         |
  +------------------------+                +-------------------------+

  Figure 18: Links of the software within the HR MIB.
  
  
  The above figure (18) shows that there are a few links between the 
  tables and that no connection is made to other MIBs. Therefore, the 
  software groups can be implemented without big difficulties, not 
  requiring instrumentation of other MIBs, whether or not available.
  
  
5.7  The RDBMS-MIB.
  
  
  The RDBMS-MIB is an application specific MIB which is used for 
  DataBase Management.
  
 
  +------------------------+                +-------------------------+
  |rdbmsDbTable            |                |rdbmsDbInfoTable         |
  +------------------------+                +-------------------------+
  |* rdbmsDbIndex          |<------+--- * <--------(no object)        |
  |                        |       ^        |                         |
  +------------------------+       |        +-------------------------+
                                   |
  +------------------------+       ^     +----------------------------+
  |rdbmsDbParamTable       |       |     |rdbmsDbLimitedResourceTable |
  +------------------------+       |     +----------------------------+
  |  (no object)         --------->+<---<----- (no object)            |
  |* rdbmsDbParamName      |             |* rdbmsDbLimitedResourceName|
  |* rdbmsDbParamSubIndex  |             |                            |
  |                        |             |                            |
  +------------------------+             +----------------------------+

    Figure 19: Links within the database group of the RDBMS MIB.
                     
  The database group complete depends of the rdbmsDbTable in which 
  general management data is defined for a database.


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                                |
  +------------------------+                +-------------------------+
  |applTable               |    |           |rdbmsSrvTable            |
  +------------------------+                +-------------------------+
  |* applIndex             |<--------+--<----------(no object)        |
  |                        |         ^      |                         |
  +------------------------+    |    |      +-------------------------+
                         NSM-MIB     |
  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +    |
                                     |
  +------------------------+         ^      +-------------------------+
  |rdbmsServerInfoTable    |         |      |rdbmsSrvParamTable       |
  +------------------------+         |      +-------------------------+
  |  (no object)         --->------->+<------- (no object)            |
  |                        |         |      |* rdbmsSrvParamName      |
  |                        |         |      |* rdbmsSrvParamSubIndex  |
  |                        |         |      |                         |
  +------------------------+         |      +-------------------------+
                                     |
  +-----------------------------+    |
  |rdbmsSrvLimitedResourceTable |    |
  +-----------------------------+    |
  | (no object)               --->---+             
  |* rdbmsSrvLimitedResourceName|
  |                             |
  +-----------------------------+
  
    Figure 20: Links within the database server group of the RDBMS MIB.

  This figure (20) shows that the database server is seen in terms of a 
  network service, since its indexing shceme depends on the applIndex.
  The applIndex is defined withi the NSM-MIB.


  +------------------------+                +-------------------------+
  |rdbmsRelTable           |                |rdbmsDbTable             |
  +------------------------+                +-------------------------+
  |  (no object)          <-------------<----- rdbmsDbIndex           |
  |  (no object)          <----------+      |                         |
  +------------------------+         |      +-------------------------+
                                     |     
  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +      |
                      NSM-MIB        |
  +------------------------+  |      |
  |applTable               |         |
  +------------------------+  |      |
  |* applIndex           --->------->+
  |                        |  |
  +------------------------+   
                              |

    Figure 21: Links connecting the database and database server group.

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  In order to have full control of which database is used by which 
  database server a relations table is added. An advantage of this 
  method is that a user can decide which database and/or which database
  server he uses and at the same time the manager has enough 
  information for proper management.




6 Conclusions

  
  This section presents the major conclusions found during this study.
  The study analysed the currently existing MIBs defined in IETF WGs 
  which can be used for application management. The investigated MIBs 
  were:

	* the SYSAPPL-MIB, 
        * the APLICATION-MIB,
	* the WWW MIB,
	* the NSM-MIB,
	* the DSA-MIB, 
	* the HR-MIB, and
	* the RDBMS-MIB.

  The objective of the analyses was to identify:
  	a) the contents of the MIBs,
  	b) the duplications and the overlaps of the MIBs, and
  	c) the indexing scheme of the MIBs.

  The SYSAPPL-MIB framework
  --- ----------- ---------

  Within the APPLMIB WG a complete framework is defined for proper 
  management of applications using SNMP. The output of this WG will be
  3 MIBs which are the SYSAPPL-MIB, Application Management MIB, and the
  WWW-MIB. This also requires that a complete indexing scheme must be
  setup and except for the WWW-MIB the MIBs have a complex network of
  indexing. Especially, the indexing scheme with in the SYSAPPL-MIB. 
  A good reason for this is that an application only once installed 
  may only be once in the 'installed'-tables, but they certainly can
  be run multiple times and spin-off multple running elements.
  Although, the WWW-MIB is defined within the APPLMIB WG and therefore
  must fullfill the requirements of the framework, a service view is 
  selected for this MIB. The service view allows the WWW-MIB to be 
  independent of the others. Managers of application software, and in 
  perticular WWW-servers, do not have to implement the full framework
  and carry the burden which comes with it.
  




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  The NSM-MIB
  --- -------

  Although a definition of a networked application in the NSM-MIB is 
  provided, but it defines not properly a service on which the 
  definition depends. Questions like `Is a networked application only
  listening to one single transport address or listening to multiple?'
  or `What mapping into the "applTable" has to be used in case of a 
  networked application using the "multi-home-host" approach?' can be
  raised.
  This last question presents an arbitrary choice for MIB implementors
  to define the "applTable" entries for such a networked application. 
  For example, a "multi-homed-host" with a networked application can 
  be defined in one entry, but also in multiple entries. It is not even
  required that in case of multiple host and entries the relation is 
  1:1.


  SYSAPPL MIB overlapping the HR MIB software groups
  ------- --- ----------- --- -- --- -------- ------

  The managed objects in the software groups of the HR MIB are almost
  completely overlap by the newer SYSAPPL MIB. Although the HR MIB is
  more process oriented, this information can extracted from the 
  SYSAPPL-MIB which even combines the processes into a coherent 
  application.


  Linking with other MIBs
  ------- ---- ----- ----

  There are two general approaches in linking objects across different 
  MIBs. The first approach is to define an object which contain a 
  value, object identifier (OID) of the refered object. This approach
  is simple and even possible to use whenever the referred object is
  not defined in the SNMP agent, where the zero pointer can be used.
  The second approach is to use the value of the referred object as an
  index (is in this draft called a "direct index"). This approach is
  more consistent since links are uniquely defined. On the contrary, 
  it raises problems when the referred object is not implemented in 
  the SNMP agent. In such a case, the referred index cannot be 
  discovered and the agent implementor has to make his own decision
  regarding the index values.


  Mapping between the SYSAPPL-MIB and the NSM-MIB
  ------- ------- --- ----------- --- --- -------

  Nowadays two 'major' MIBs, SYSAPPL-MIB and NSM-MIB, are available for
  application management. Both claim to be generic and could, 
  therefore, be used as platform to hook on other application specific
  MIBs.
  

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  The definition of an application within the SYSAPPL-MIB is:  
       "An application is one or more units of executable code and 
        other resources, installed on a single host system that a 
        manager may think of as a single object for management 
        purposes."
  
  The definition of an application (or networked application) within 
  the NSM-MIB is not really defined, but implicit within the draft as:
       "A networked application is a unit (executable code) within a 
        single host which operates in conjunction with other units 
        over a network."
  
  Unfortunately, the mapping between both types of applications is not
  well and uniquely defined. This is what we directly see taking 
  WWW-servers as an example. Normally, the mapping between an 
  application in the SYSAPPL-MIB and an application in the NSM-MIB
  should be no problem. However, when using virtual hosts on a single
  machine the application components are going to behave very 
  differently. WWW-servers, like Apache, is one application (as seen
  from a SYSAPPL-MIB point of view), but it are also multiple networked
  applications (as seen from a NSM-MIB point of view) by using virtual
  hosts. 
  































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7 References


 [] McCloghrie, K., and M. Rose, Editors, "Management Information
     Base for Network Management of TCP/IP-based internets: MIB-
     II", STD 17, RFC 1213, Hughes LAN Systems, Performance
     Systems International, March 1991.

 [] Grillo, P., and S. Waldbusser, "Host Resources MIB", RFC 1514,
     Network Innovations, Intel Corporation, Carnegie Mellon
     University, September 1993.

 [] Kille, S., and N. Freed, "Network Services Monitoring MIB",
     RFC 1565, ISODE Consortium, Innosoft, January 1994

 [] Saperia, J., C. Krupczak, R. Sturm, and J. Weinstock, "Definition
     of Managed Objects for Applications",
     draft-ietf-applmib-sysapplmib-08.txt, BGS Systems, Empire
     Technologies, Enterprise Management Professional Services,
     Bellcore, April 1997.

 [] Kalbfleisch, C., C. Krupczak, R. Presuhn, J. Saperia, 
    "Application Management MIB", draft-ietf-applmib-mib-03.txt,
    September 1997.

 [] Kalbfleisch, C., Hazewinkel, H., Schoenwaelder, J., "Definitions 
     of Managed Objects for WWW Servers", 
     draft-ietf-applmib-wwwmib-03.txt, June 1997.

 [] Krupczak, C. and S. Waldbusser, "Applicability of Host Resources
     MIB to Application Management", Empire Technologies, Inc.,
     International Network Services, October 1995.

 [] Kille, S., and N. Freed, "Mail Monitoring MIB", RFC 1566, ISODE
     Consortium, Innosoft, January 1994.

 [] Mansfield, G., and S. Kille, "X.500 Directory Monitoring MIB",
     RFC 1567, AIC Systems Laboratory, ISODE Consortium, January 1994.

 [] Mansfield, G., and S. Kille, "X.500 Directory Monitoring MIB",
     RFC 1567, AIC Systems Laboratory, ISODE Consortium, January 1994.

 [] brower, D., Purvy, B., Daniel, A., Sinykin, M., Smith, J.,
     "Relational Database management System (RDBMS) Management 
     Information Base (MIB) using SMIv2", RFC1697, INGRES DBMS 
     Development, August 1994.

 [] Kalbfleisch, C., "Applicability of Standards Track MIBs to
     Management of World Wide Web Servers", RFC-2039, OnRamp
     Technologies, November 1996.





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INTERNET-DRAFT      draft-hazewinkel-appl-mib-01.txt       July 18, 1997


8 Authors address


  Harrie Hazewinkel
  postal: CEO Programme
          Joint Research Centre of the E.C
          TP 950
          21020 Ispra Italy
  email:  harrie.hazewinkel@jrc.it
  www:    http://porto.jrc.it/~harrie


9 Acknowledgements

  This document benefited from the comments of the following persons:
  
  Eric van Hengstum     <hengstum@cs.utwente.nl>
  Carl Kalbfleish       <cwk@verio.net>
  Cheryl Krupczak       <cheryl@empiretech.com>
  Rui Meneses           <rui.meneses@jrc.it>
  Aiko Pras             <pras@cs.uwtente.nl>
  randy Presuhn         <rpresuhn@peer.com>
  Jon Saperia           <saperia@networks.bgs.com>
  Jeurgen Schoenwaelder <schoenw@cs.utwente.nl>






























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INTERNET-DRAFT      draft-hazewinkel-appl-mib-01.txt       July 18, 1997



10. Table of Contents


 Abstract ...........................................................2
 
 1. Introduction ....................................................3
 1.1 How to read this internet draft ................................4

 2.  The Working Groups of Application Related MIBs .................4

 3.  The application related MIBs ...................................5
 3.1 The System Application MIB .....................................5
 3.2 The Application Management MIB .................................7
 3.3 The World Wide Web MIB .........................................9
 3.4 The Network Services Monitoring MIB ...........................10
 3.5 The X.500 Directory Monitoring MIB ............................11
 3.6 The Host Resources MIB ........................................11
 3.7 The Relational Database Management System MIB .................14

 4.  The overlapping objects of the MIBs ...........................15
 4.1 The SYSAPPL-MIB and the HR-MIB ................................16
 4.2 The SYSAPPL-MIB and the NSM-MIB ...............................18
 4.3 The HR-MIB and the NSM-MIB ....................................19
 4.4 The WWWW-MIB and the SYSAPPL-MIB ..............................20
 4.5 The WWWW-MIB and the NSM-MIB ..................................21
 4.6 The WWW-MIB and the HR-MIB ....................................23

 5.  Relationships/Indexing between managed objects ................23
 5.1 The SYSAPPL-MIB ...............................................24
 5.2 The Application Management MIB ................................26
 5.3 The WWW-MIB ...................................................28
 5.4 The NSM-MIB ...................................................29
 5.5 The X.500 DSA-MIB .............................................29
 5.6 The HR-MIB ....................................................30
 5.7 The RDBMS-MIB .................................................32

 6.  Conclusions ...................................................34

 7.  References ....................................................37

 8.  Author's address ..............................................38

 9.  Acknowledgements ..............................................38

10. Table of Contents ..............................................39








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