Internet DRAFT - draft-hareskini-i2rs-pbr-info-model


I2RS working group                                              S. Hares
Internet-Draft                                                    Huawei
Intended status: Standards Track                                 S. Kini
Expires: April 30, 2015                                         Ericsson
                                                             A. Ghanwani
                                                             R. Krishnan
                                                                   Q. Wu
                                                           D. Bogdanovic
                                                        Juniper Networks
                                                        October 27, 2014

             An Information Model for Basic Network Policy


   This document defines the I2RS Policy-Based Routing (PBR) policy
   information model describing I2RS interactions with the PBR in a
   routing system.  The PBR IM uses Policy Core Information Model (PCIM)
   framework (RFC3060, RFC3460, and RFC3644) to specify the ordered
   route list within the PBR RIB adapted to I2RS.

Status of This Memo

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Definitions and Acronyms  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  The Policy Based Routing Information Model Overview . . . . .   4
     3.1.  Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   4.  PBR-RIB module  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.1.  PBR RIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.2.  PBR Rule Component  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.3.  I2RS PRB RIB interaction with PBR RIB . . . . . . . . . .  12
   5.  Relationship between PBR Rule Model and RIB Information Model  13
   6.  Discussion of I2RS related issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   9.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16

1.  Introduction

   The Interface to the Routing System (I2RS)
   [I-D.ietf-i2rs-architecture] architecture calls out for read and
   write access to the information and state within the routing
   elements.  The I2RS client interacts with the I2RS agent in one or
   more network routing systems.

   This I2RS Policy-Based Routing (PBR) Information model defined in
   this document describes the I2RS interaction with PBR within a
   routing element.

   The PBR requires an ordered list of policy.  This PBR informational
   model uses the Policy Core Information Model (PCIM) framework as
   described in [RFC3060] with its extensions in [RFC3460] and QOS model
   in [RFC3644].  The adaptation of the PCIM model to I2RS use is
   described in [I-D.hares-i2rs-bnp-info-model].

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2.  Definitions and Acronyms


      Command Line Interface


      IGP is an Interior Gateway Protocol

   Information Model

      is an abstract model of a conceptual domain, independent of a
      specific implementations or data representation


      Multi-Protocol Label Switching.


      The Network Configuration Protocol


      Policy Based Routing.

   PBR Default RIB

      The PBR Default RIB is the default Routing Information Based use
      based for forwarding traffic for routes which do not match any


      Policy Based Routing-Routing Information Base


      Policy Core Information Model directly and indirectly the work of
      the PCIM Working Group.

   Policy Rule

      The PCIM framework defines a policy rule is often represented by
      "if Condition then action".  The action may have set, modify, or
      notify actions.  The [I-D.hares-i2rs-bnp-info-model] provides

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      examines of how ACLs, Prefix lists, and more complex BGP policy
      can be combined into a policy rule.

   Policy Group

      The PCIM Framework defines policy groups as a group of policy
      rules into ordered and prioritized groups of policy.

   Policy Set

      The PCIM framework defines a the Policy set (specifically the
      PolicySetComponent) as an aggregation class that allows
      aggregation of Policy Groups and the nesting of Policy Groups
      under Policy set rules.  The PolicySet rules include nesting
      policies and matching strategies (all-matching or first-match),
      priorities between rules, and roles.  One of the roles that must
      be conditionally matched is the models denotation of "read-only"
      or "read-write" policy rules into ordered and prioritized groups
      of policy.  The [I-D.hares-i2rs-bnp-info-model] suggests that non-
      nested policy groups may be sufficient for initial I2RS and
      configuration work.


      RIB Informational Model (RIB IM) [I-D.ietf-i2rs-rib-info-model]

   Routing instance

      Routing Code often has the ability to spin up multiple copies of
      itself into virtual machines.  Each Routing code instance or each
      protocol instance is denoted as N_INSTANCE in the text below.


      The Simple Network Management Protocol

3.  The Policy Based Routing Information Model Overview

   Policy Based Routing (PBR) is a widely used term in the industry to
   describe a a technique used to make packet forwarding decisions
   decisions based on policies set by the network administrator.  PBR
   enables network administrator to forward the packet based on other
   criteria than the destination address in the packet, which is used to
   lookup an entry in the routing table.

   The PBR problem can be viewed as a resource allocation problem that
   incorporates business decision with routing.  PBR may be used to

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   provide many benefits, including better resource allocation, load
   balancing and QoS.

   Routing decisions in PBR are based on several criteria beyond
   destination address, such as application, IP protocol used, identity
   of the end system, and even packet size.  Policy actions are
   typically applied before applying QoS constraints since policy
   actions may overrides QoS constraint.

   The I2RS use cases which benefit from PBR are: Protocol independent
   Use cases and large flow use cases described in

   The PBR policies are specified in most routers/switches as an ordered
   set of rules.  Each policy rule has a set of match conditions, and a
   set of actions which may include forwarding actions and QoS actions.
   Since policy rules, groups of policy, and ordered sets of policy are
   used in other protocols (BGP or MPLS), these policy rules have been
   abstracted into a basic network policy instantiation of the PCIM
   ([RFC3060], [RFC3460], and [RFC3644]).  This instantiation include in
   the ordered policy rule the references to other policy match-action
   conditions such as the ACLs ([I-D.bogdanovic-netmod-acl-model]), and
   Prefix list ([I-D.zhdankin-netmod-bgp-cfg]).

3.1.  Scope

   A PBR IM can be considered in either a top-down view examining the
   policy which controls the data flow or from a bottom-up view which
   considers the data plane.  A top-down view considers how policies
   control protocols (BGP or IGPs (ISIS/OSPF)) transfer of routes to
   determine how data flows.  The bottoms-up view considers the
   forwarding data planes that must be supported.  In this view,the
   match filters must consider IP [both IPv4 and IPv6], but may also
   consider MPLS and encapsulated protocols such as TCP [RFC0793], UDP
   [RFC0768], STCP [RFC4960], ICMP [RFC0792].  This draft takes the
   bottoms-up viewpoint which looks at how the PBR RIB controls the data

   This draft considers match and action filters for the data-planes
   using IP (both IPv4 [RFC0791] and IPV6 [RFC2460]).

4.  PBR-RIB module

   A PBR-RIB is an entity that contains an ordered set of policy routes
   and is analogous to a RIB defined in [I-D.ietf-i2rs-rib-info-model].
   An ordered set of policy routes implies that the insertion into a
   PBR-RIB must allow for inserting of a PBR route at any specific
   position and deleting a route at a specific position.  The ability to

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   change a policy rule at a specific position combines these two
   functions (deleting an existing policy rule and adding a new policy

   Each PBR-RIB is contained within a routing instance, but one routing
   instance (named by an INSTANCE_NAME) can contain multiple PBR RIBs.
   Each routing instance is associated with a set of interfaces, a
   router-id a PBR default-RIB, and list of PBR-RIBs.  Only some of the
   interfaces associated with a routing instance may be associated with
   a PBR-RIB.  Each interface can be associated with at most one PBR

   Packets arriving on an interface associated with a PBR-RIB will be
   forwarded based on a PBR-RIB in the list or PBR Default RIB (if no
   matches occur).  The policy processing within the PBR process within
   the routing system is expected to do the following:

   o  When a packet successfully matches a PBR Match term/entry, the
      corresponding policy-actions are applied.

   o  If a packet does not match a PBR match term/entry, the PBR
      processing, goes to the next term/entry in the order, and looks
      for a match, within the current filter or goes to the next filter
      in the list.  This continues until either a PBR match term/entry
      is successfully matched, or no more filters in the list exists.

   o  If no match has been found within the PBR filter list, then the
      packet will be forwarded using the PBR Default-RIB if one exists.
      If no PBR Default-RIB is specified, the packet will be discarded.

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            |     routing instance          |
               *        |               |
               |        |               |
       +-----------+ +-------------+ +-----------+
       |interface* | |PBR_RIB *list| |PBR-Default|
       |  list     | |             | |-RIB       |
       +-----------+ +--|----------+ +---|-------+
                        |              RIB (RIB-info IM)
            |       PBR RIB* list   |
            |  BNP Policy Set       | [Note: This layer
            |                       |   can be skipped if
            |(nested ordered policy |   groups are not nested.]
            | from RFC3466)         |
            | BNP-Policy-Group*     |
            |                       |
            |(list of ordered groups|
            | RFC3466 policy group  |
            | augmented with I2RS   |
            | scope)                |
            | BNP-Policy-Rule*      |
            |                       |
            | (ordered list of      |
            | RFC3466 policy rules) |
            | augmented with        |
            | policy-order, status, |
            | and refcnt) with ACL  |
            | and other condition-  |
            | action matches        |

                    Figure 1: Routing instance with PBR RIB

   The PBR entries associated with each PBR in a routing instance are:

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      Name of Routing instance


      router id associated with the PBR function of the Routing instance


      A list of interfaces that all of the PBR RIBs operate over.  This
      list must be a subset of the interface_list associated with the
      routing instance.

   PBR Default RIB

      A RIB contained in the same routing instance that can be used to
      forward packets when the FIB entries in the PBR-RIB list do not
      match the packets.  The PBR Default-RIB forwards based on
      destination based routing.

   PBR-RIB* list

      list of PBR-RIBs

   The Top-level Yang structure for the PBR RIB is:

    module: PBR
         +--rw pbr-instance-name
         +--rw pbr-router-id  uint32
         +--rw pbr-interface*
         |  +--rw pbr-interface interface-ref-id
         +--rw PBR-Default-RIB
         +--rw PBR-RIB
            +--rw PBR-RIB-Name
            +--rw PBR-RIB-AFI
            +--rw PBR-RIB-intf*
            +--rw PBR-status-info
            |  +--rw pbr-update-ref uint64
            +--rw PBR-Ordered-Route-Policy
                +--rw pbr-group-policy* [group-policy-ref]
                |  +--rw group-policy-ref  uint16
                |  +--rw group-policy-name string
                |  +--ro group-policy-status-info
                |  |  +--ro group-policy-status
                |  |  +--ro group-policy-inactive-reason
                |  +--rw policy-rule* [policy-rule-ref]

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                |     +--rw policy-rule-ref
                |     +--ro policy-rule-status-info
                |     |  +--ro policy-rule-status enumeration
                |     |  +--ro policy-rule-inactive-reason
                |     +--rw pbr-match-filter* [nr-policy-match]
                |        +--rw pbr-match-term
                |        |  +--rw pbr-match-condition
                |        |  |    +--rw nr-policy-match
                |        |  |    +--rw pbr-ipv4-matches
                |        |  |    +--rw pbr-ipv6-matche
                |        |  |    +--rw pbr-transport-matches
                |        |  |    +--rw pbr-combo-operator
                |        |  +--rw pbr-rule-action
                |        |       +--rw pbr-QOS-acts [nbr-act]
                |        |       +--rw npbr-act
                |        |       +--rw set-in-ipv4-packet
                |        |       |  ...
                |        |       +--rw set-in-ipv6-packet
                |        |       | ...
                |        |       +--rw set-vendor
                |        |       |  . . .
                |        +--rw pbr-forwarding-actions
                |        |  +--rw pbr-std-fwd enumeration
                |        |  +--rw pbr-vendor-fw enumeration
                +--rw pbr-policy-set[policy-set-name]
                   +--rw policy-set-name
                   +   . . .

             Figure 2: PBR RIB Yang Structure

4.1.  PBR RIB

   Each PBR RIB has the following:

   o  PBR-RIB-Name - Name identifier for PBR RIB

   o  PBR-RIB-AFI - AFI Supported by the PBR RIB

   o  PBR-RIB-intf* - Interface PBR operates on.  Note that an interface
      can be associated with at most one PBR RIB.  For example
      interfaces eth1 and eth2 can be associated to PBR_RIB, but these
      two interfaces cannot be connected to any other PBR RIB.

   o  PBR-Status-info - status at PBR RIB level which includes number of
      times since reconfiguration this PBR has been updated.

   o  PBR-Ordered-Route-Policy contains two sub-elements:

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      *  pbr-group-policy - group policy list indexed by group-policy-
         ref number.  Policy group contains a reference number (group-
         policy-ref), name, status-info, and a list of policy-rules. the
         group policy status can be one of the following: installed,
         active, inactive, I2RS-active, and I2RS-inactive).  The
         inactive reason can be one of the following: null, poicy-
         conflict, i2rs-supersedes, unsupported).

      *  pbr-policy-set - policy set identified by name

   Initially, it is expected the simply group policy list will be
   sufficient.  (See [I-D.hares-i2rs-bnp-info-model] for an examples of
   the policy rules can contain ACL policy, Prefix-list policy, and more
   complex (match/set) policy.)

4.2.  PBR Rule Component

   A PBR policy rule used by has the following general architecture.

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            |     Policy Rule       |
            |     (PBR usage)       |
               :                 :     .......
               :                 :     :     :
      +--------V-------+ +-------V-------+   :
      | PBR Condition  | |   PBR Action  |<...
      +----------------+ +-+----------+--+
                          /|\        /|\
                  "extends"|          | "extends"
                       +---+          +--------+
                       |                       |
               +-------^-------+         +-----^---------+
               |  QoS Action   |         |Forward Action |
               +---------------+         +---------------+
                 :     :    :                 :     :    :
             ....:     :    :.....       .....:     :    :.....
             :         :         :       :          :         :
        +----V---+ +---V----+ +--V---+ +-V------++--V-----++--V-----+
        |Set     | |QoS     | |QoS   | |Forward ||Next Hop||Next Hop|
        |Operator| |Variable| |Value | |Operator||Variable||Value   |
        +--------+ +--------+ +------+ +--------++--+-----++--------+
                                                    | "extends"
                                                |Next Hop|
                                                |Type    |
                    Figure 3: Policy Rules for PBR routing

   The policy-rule contains the following:

   o  PBR-match-filter - ordered PBR match field for a route entry which
      contains either:

      *  nr-policy-match - order number in match sequence

      *  pbr-ipv4-matches - one or more matches of IPv4 source address,
         IPv4 destination address, IPv4 Protocol, IPv4 TOS/DSCP field,
         IPv4 ICMP field, and the length of the packet.  These matches
         can be exact matches, longest prefix matches for addresses, or
         range matches for values in TOS/DSCP field, ICMP field or
         length of packet.

      *  pbr-iv6-matches - one or more match of IPv6 source address,
         IPv6 destination address, IPvs Traffic class (DSCP), IPv6 Flow
         label, IPv6 payload length, IPv6 next-header, hop-limit.  These

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         matches can be exact matches, longest prefix matches for
         addresses, or range matches.

      *  pbr-transport-matches - one or more matches in source port or
         destination port

      *  pbr-combo-operator - logical OR or logical AND that combine
         matches in one match filter.

   o  pbr-rule-action* - An ordered list of policy actions that includes
      the following:

      *  npbr-acts - order number in action sequence

      *  Actions: set values in one or more of the following:

         +  IPv4 packets in IPv4 source address, IPv4 destination
            address, IPv4 Protocol, IPv4 TOS/DSCP field, IPv4 ICMP field
            or the length of the packet.  (Please note that hardware
            data plane forwarders may only be able to set TOS/DSCP while
            software data plane forwarders may be able set additional

         +  IPv6 packets in IPv6 source address, IPv6 destination
            address, IPv6 Protocol value, IPv6 Flow, or IPv6 packet

      *  pbr-forwarding-actions - which includes

         +  pbr-std-forwarding - (enumeration) forwarding packet

            -  Drop_Packet - drop packet

            -  Drop_Packet_ICMP - dropping packet with ICMP unreachable

            -  Forward_Packet_specific - send to specific next hop

            -  Forward_Packet_default - forward based on PBR Default RIB

         +  pbr-vendor-fwd - Vendor specific action

4.3.  I2RS PRB RIB interaction with PBR RIB

   The I2RS client-agent pair PBR process within a routing process to
   add ephemeral these changes to the PBR State so that

   PBR-running = PBR-config + PBR-I2RS-ephemeral

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   The I2RS ephemeral state will not survive a reboot of the machine.
   Upon a reboot, the I2RS client must reload the I2RS Agent with the
   I2RS PBR RIB state lost in the reboot.

   The PBR RIB module must allow both the I2RS client-agent to to read
   the PBR IM as as query or as a notification stream.  The pbr-update-
   ref parameter of the PBR-status-info provides an update count for the
   PBR configuration to indicate if the PBR has been updated with
   additions or deletions of the PBR policy rules.  This provides the
   I2RS interface a quick way to check for changes by other entities to
   the PBR route list.

5.  Relationship between PBR Rule Model and RIB Information Model

   The RIB in a router with I2RS is the following:

   running RIB = configured-RIB + routes-installed-from-protocols +

   As described in [I-D.ietf-i2rs-rib-info-model], the I2RS ephemeral
   RIB information in routing instance contains a collection of RIBs,
   interfaces, and routing parameters including the following:

   o  The set of interfaces indicates which interfaces are associated
      with this routing instance.

   o  The RIBs specify how incoming traffic is to be forwarded based on
      destination (E.g.  RIB and PBR-RIB).

   o  The routing parameters control the information in the RIBs.

   PBR RIB and RIB can not be used at the same time, which means:

   o  If a router doesn't support policy based routing, a router MUST
      use RIB and MUST not use PBR RIB.

   o  If a router supports policy based routing:

      *  PBR-RIB is used

      *  Multiple PBR-RIBs may exist within a routing instance

      *  An interface can be associated with at most one PBR-RIB

      *  The PBR Default RIB is used if several criteria beyond
         destination address is not matched.

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6.  Discussion of I2RS related issues

   This section record the issues with the initials of the person who
   recorded it.

   Forwarding per interface (JMH)

      - The authors believe the forwarding per interface is covered by
      the attachment of a PBR to interface-list.

   Centralized or Distributed Policy Strategy (JMH)

      The authors believe this structure can be used by either
      centralized or distributed forwarding for configuration or the
      I2RS ephemeral datastpre.

   policy database-enforcement points architecture (JMH)

      The authors believe this yang modules describes the PBR which
      provides a specific enforcement of forwarding policy.  The wider
      constraints of how policy groups are stored, administered or
      distributed should be engaged at a higher layer.  The authors note
      the Policy-Group project in OpenDaylight has an architecture for
      policy enforcement that renders the results to a particular
      instantiation in nodes.  One such instantiation could be the I2RS

   policy rule conflicts (JMH)

      Detection of policy rule conflicts are done by the policy module
      receiving the configuration or ephemeral I2RS stream.  The policy
      can be reject or installed and rejected from active use due to
      conflicts at either the policy group level or the policy rule
      level.  At the policy group level the group-policy-status-info
      contains a status of installed, active, or installed-inactive.  If
      the status is inactive the group-policy-inactive-reason can
      indicate policy-conflicts.  The policy-rule has a similar status
      (policy-rule-status-info with policy-rule-status and policy-rule-

7.  IANA Considerations

   This draft includes no request to IANA.

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8.  Security Considerations


9.  Informative References

              Bogdanovic, D., Sreenivasa, K., Huang, L., and D. Blair,
              "Network Access Control List (ACL) YANG Data Model",
              draft-bogdanovic-netmod-acl-model-02 (work in progress),
              October 2014.

              Hares, S. and Q. Wu, "An Information Model for Basic
              Network Policy", draft-hares-i2rs-bnp-info-model-00 (work
              in progress), September 2014.

              Hares, S., "Summary of I2RS Use Case Requirements", draft-
              hares-i2rs-usecase-reqs-summary-00 (work in progress),
              July 2014.

              Atlas, A., Halpern, J., Hares, S., Ward, D., and T.
              Nadeau, "An Architecture for the Interface to the Routing
              System", draft-ietf-i2rs-architecture-05 (work in
              progress), July 2014.

              Bahadur, N., Folkes, R., Kini, S., and J. Medved, "Routing
              Information Base Info Model", draft-ietf-i2rs-rib-info-
              model-03 (work in progress), May 2014.

              Alex, A., Patel, K., and A. Clemm, "Yang Data Model for
              BGP Protocol", draft-zhdankin-netmod-bgp-cfg-01 (work in
              progress), October 2014.

   [RFC0768]  Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768,
              August 1980.

   [RFC0791]  Postel, J., "Internet Protocol", STD 5, RFC 791, September

   [RFC0792]  Postel, J., "Internet Control Message Protocol", STD 5,
              RFC 792, September 1981.

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   [RFC0793]  Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol", STD 7, RFC
              793, September 1981.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2460]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.

   [RFC3060]  Moore, B., Ellesson, E., Strassner, J., and A. Westerinen,
              "Policy Core Information Model -- Version 1
              Specification", RFC 3060, February 2001.

   [RFC3460]  Moore, B., "Policy Core Information Model (PCIM)
              Extensions", RFC 3460, January 2003.

   [RFC3644]  Snir, Y., Ramberg, Y., Strassner, J., Cohen, R., and B.
              Moore, "Policy Quality of Service (QoS) Information
              Model", RFC 3644, November 2003.

   [RFC4960]  Stewart, R., "Stream Control Transmission Protocol", RFC
              4960, September 2007.

Authors' Addresses

   Susan Hares
   7453 Hickory Hill
   Saline, MI  48176




   Anoop Ghanwani


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   Ram Krishnan


   Qin Wu


   Dean Bogdanovic
   Juniper Networks
   Westford, MA


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