Internet DRAFT - draft-hall-firs-svc


  INTERNET-DRAFT                                             Eric A. Hall 
  Document: draft-hall-firs-svc-01.txt                        August 2003 
  Expires: March, 2004                                                    
  Category: Experimental                                                  
                   Defining and Locating Network Services  
                 in the Federated Internet Registry Service 
     Status of this Memo 
     This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with 
     all provisions of Section 10 of RFC 2026. 
     Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering 
     Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that 
     other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
     Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six 
     months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other 
     documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts 
     as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in 
     The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at 
     The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at 
     Copyright Notice 
     Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003).  All Rights Reserved. 
     This document defines LDAP schema and searching rules for general 
     network services, in support of the Federated Internet Registry 
     Service (FIRS) described in [FIRS-ARCH] and [FIRS-CORE]. 
  Internet Draft        draft-hall-firs-svc-01.txt          August 2003 
     Table of Contents 
     1.   Introduction...............................................2 
     2.   Prerequisites and Terminology..............................3 
     3.   Naming Syntax..............................................3 
     4.   Object Classes and Attributes..............................4 
     5.   Query Processing Rules.....................................7 
       5.1.  Query Pre-Processing....................................8 
       5.2.  LDAP Matching...........................................8 
       5.3.  Example Query...........................................9 
     6.   Security Considerations...................................10 
     7.   IANA Considerations.......................................10 
     8.   Normative References......................................10 
     9.   Author's Addresses........................................11 
     10.  Acknowledgments...........................................11 
     11.  Full Copyright Statement..................................11 
  1.      Introduction 
     This specification defines the naming syntax, object classes, 
     attributes, matching filters, and query processing rules for 
     storing and locating generalized network services in the FIRS 
     service. Refer to [FIRS-ARCH] for information on the FIRS 
     architecture and [FIRS-CORE] for the schema definitions and rules 
     which govern the FIRS service as a whole. 
     In the model proposed in this document, network services are 
     identified by their mnemonic name, with each instance of a service 
     being associated with an existing network resource. In this model, 
     it is possible for multiple instances of a service to be created 
     in the global directory, with each instance being represented by 
     an entry which is subordinate to an existing host, network, 
     domain, or contact entry. 
     This model allows services to exist as heavily-virtualized 
     resources, which in turn allows for a myriad of discovery options. 
     For example, this would allow a client to query for the service-
     specific data which was associated with a known user, but if that 
     data was not available (either because it did not exist, or 
     because the client did not have permission to read the entry), 
     then the client could query for the service-specific data which 
     was associated with the user's domain. 
     Note that this specification only defines the basic schema and 
     default behavioral rules for service-discovery in general, and 
  Hall                   I-D Expires: March 2004              [page 2] 
  Internet Draft        draft-hall-firs-svc-01.txt          August 2003 
     does not define the schema and behavioral rules for all Internet 
     services, or for any Internet service in particular. In order for 
     this specification to have any significance to any particular 
     Internet service, a standards-track specification which governs 
     that service MUST be defined which explicitly details the schema 
     and/or behavioral rules to be used in support of the model put 
     forth in this specification. 
     The definitions in this specification are intended to be used with 
     FIRS. Their usage outside of FIRS is not prohibited, but any such 
     usage is beyond this specification's scope of authority. 
  2.      Prerequisites and Terminology 
     The complete set of specifications in the FIRS collection 
     cumulatively define a structured and distributed information 
     service using LDAPv3 [RFC3377] for the data-formatting and 
     transport functions. This specification should be read in the 
     context of that set, which currently includes [FIRS-ARCH],  
     [FIRS-IPV4] and [FIRS-IPV6]. 
     The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL 
     in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119. 
  3.      Naming Syntax 
     The naming syntax for network services in FIRS MUST follow the 
     form of "cn=<inetService>,<container>,cn=inetResources, 
     <partition>", where <inetService> is the network service resource, 
     where <container> is the entry of the parent resource that this 
     instance of the service is specifically associated with, and where 
     <partition> is a sequence of domainComponent relative 
     distinguished names which identifies the scope of authority for 
     the selected directory partition. 
     The inetService element uses the standardized Directory String 
     syntax with case neutral matching rules, allowing any UTF-8 
     character code to be used for the service name. However, service 
     names are not entirely free-form. In particular, service names 
     MUST use the friendly name of well-known services from STD1 [STD1] 
     as registered with IANA, and entry names SHOULD be created using 
     the same capitalization as those service names. 
  Hall                   I-D Expires: March 2004              [page 3] 
  Internet Draft        draft-hall-firs-svc-01.txt          August 2003 
     The <container> element can reference any parent resource, 
     specifically including any domain name, IP address, or contact 
     email address, as described in [FIRS-DNS], [FIRS-IPV4],  
     [FIRS-IPV6] and [FIRS-CNTCT] respectively. In this model, services 
     can be specifically associated with a particular host, network, 
     domain, or contact. The client which formulates the query is 
     responsible for determining the scope of the query, and is 
     responsible for crafting the entry name and search base correctly. 
     Note that entries MAY exist as referrals to other entries, and in 
     this regard it is possible to redirect queries for a resource-
     specific service to another resource, such as redirecting queries 
     for a host-specific service to an entry for a network-wide 
     service, or vice-versa. 
     Refer to [FIRS-ARCH] and [FIRS-CORE] for information about the 
     inetResources container and the domainComponent elements. 
     An example of an typical entry is as follows: 
     That entry would specifically identify the "http" service 
     associated with the "" resource in the directory 
     partition associated with the domain. 
  4.      Object Classes and Attributes 
     Network service entries in FIRS MUST use the inetService object 
     class, in addition to the mandatory object classes defined in 
     [FIRS-CORE]. Network service entries MUST be treated as containers 
     capable of holding subordinate entries. 
     If an entry exists as a referral source, the entry MUST be defined 
     with the referral object class, in addition to the other object 
     classes defined above. Referral sources MUST NOT contain 
     subordinate entries. Refer to section 3.5 of [FIRS-CORE] for more 
     information on referral entries in FIRS. 
     Note that additional service-related schema definitions and 
     behavioral rules are explicitly allowed for any service. For 
     example, a standards-track specification for a particular service 
     MAY define or require specific schema or behavioral rules for that 
     service which are subsequently used by the application agents 
     which ultimately provide that network service. 
  Hall                   I-D Expires: March 2004              [page 4] 
  Internet Draft        draft-hall-firs-svc-01.txt          August 2003 
     The inetService object class is a structural object class which is 
     subordinate to the inetResources object class. The inetService 
     object class has no mandatory attributes, although it does have 
     several optional attributes. The inetService object class also 
     inherits the attributes defined in the inetResources object class, 
     including the "cn" naming attribute. 
     Network service entries MUST NOT have any resource-specific object 
     classes defined other than the inetService object class (this 
     specifically includes any resource-specific object classes which 
     may be associated with a parent resource). The presence of 
     additional resource-specific object classes (such as 
     inetDnsDomain, for example) can cause false matches for some 
     queries, and this MUST be avoided. 
     The schema definition for the inetService object class is as 
            NAME 'inetService' 
            DESC 'General network service attributes.' 
            SUP inetResources 
            MAY ( inetServiceContacts $ inetServiceTargets ) ) 
     The attributes from the inetService object class are described 
            NAME 'inetServiceContacts' 
            DESC 'Contacts for general administrative issues concerning 
            this network service.' 
            EQUALITY caseIgnoreMatch 
            SYNTAX ) 
            NAME 'inetServiceTargets' 
            DESC 'Connection information for this service.' 
            EQUALITY caseIgnoreMatch 
            SYNTAX inetServiceTargetSyntax ) 
  Hall                   I-D Expires: March 2004              [page 5] 
  Internet Draft        draft-hall-firs-svc-01.txt          August 2003 
     The inetServiceTargets attribute is a structured (SEQUENCE) 
     attribute, containing multiple subordinate attributes. The 
     subordinate attributes explicitly identify a target host by domain 
     name, a transport protocol (decimal value), a port number (decimal 
     value), a preference value for the specified target, and a non-
     descript weighting value. This allows multiple targets to be 
     associated with each entry, with each target identifying different 
     hosts, transport protocols, and port numbers, as necessary. 
     The preference value simply gives a fixed preference using inverse 
     weighting, with a value of zero have the highest preference and a 
     value of 65,535 having the lowest preference. Targets with equal 
     preference values are to be randomly selected by default, although 
     service-specific profiles may define additional requirements 
     (e.g., a service-specific profile may require that the client 
     analyze the target's domain name or IP address in order to 
     determine the "closest" target). 
     The meaning of the weighting value is undefined in this 
     specification. It is provided so that additional specifications 
     can define any load-balancing mechanisms they may require. 
     The inetServiceTargetSyntax syntax is defined in ASN.1 as follows: 
          inetServiceTargetSyntax ::= SEQUENCE { 
            Hostname      inetDnsDomainSyntax, 
            Transport     INTEGER (0..65535), 
            Port          INTEGER (0..65535), 
            Preference    INTEGER (0..65535), 
            Weight        INTEGER (0..65535) } 
  Hall                   I-D Expires: March 2004              [page 6] 
  Internet Draft        draft-hall-firs-svc-01.txt          August 2003 
     An example of the inetService object class is shown in Figure 1 
          [top object class] 
          [inetResources object class] 
          [inetService object class] 
          +-attribute: description 
          | value: "The http service on" 
          +-attribute: inetServiceContacts 
          | value: "" 
          +-attribute: inetServiceTargets 
            value: (, 6, 80, 0, 0) 
            value: (, 6, 80, 100, 0) 
            value: (, 6, 80, 100, 0) 
     Figure 1: The "http" service associated with the 
     resource in the dc=example,dc=com directory partition. 
     In the example shown in Figure 1 shows three distinct resource 
     targets, with tcp/80 on "" having the greatest 
     preference, and with tcp/80 on "" and 
     "" both having equally lesser preferences. In 
     this example, if the host were unavailable, the 
     client could choose from either of the two remaining hosts. 
     Note that this example assumes that the "http" profile would 
     actually specify the described behavior. This document is not 
     authoritative for the http service, and as such this example is 
     only provided for illustration purposes. 
  5.      Query Processing Rules 
     Queries for network services have several special requirements, as 
     discussed in the following sections. 
     Refer to [FIRS-CORE] for general information about FIRS queries. 
  Hall                   I-D Expires: March 2004              [page 7] 
  Internet Draft        draft-hall-firs-svc-01.txt          August 2003 
  5.1.    Query Pre-Processing 
     FIRS clients MUST use the targeted bootstrap model by default for 
     network service queries (note that individual service-specific 
     definitions may specify any alternative behavior necessary). As 
     such, the search base for default queries would be set to the 
     complete sequence of domainComponent relative distinguished names 
     of the authoritative partition. 
     FIRS clients MAY use the top-down or bottom-up bootstrap models 
     for queries if necessary or desirable. However, it is not likely 
     that entries will be found for all possible services using the 
     top-down model (the "dc=com" partition is not likely to have 
     entries for all of the services in the "dc=example,dc=com" 
     hierarchy, for example), while the bottom-up recovery model is 
     likely to generate excessive errors and delays. As such, the 
     targeted bootstrap model will be the most useful in most cases, 
     and MUST be used by default. 
     This specification uses two inputs to form the query -- the 
     service name, and the associated target resource -- both of which 
     must be dealt with explicitly and separately. The service name 
     will be used to form an assertion value, while the associated 
     target resource will be used as part of the search base. 
     Clients MUST ensure that the name of the service is properly 
     formulated, in compliance with the rules described in section 3. 
     Clients MUST normalize the target name of the query according to 
     the syntax rules associated with the resource-type in question. 
     For example, if the target specifies a domain name, that element 
     MUST conform to the inetDnsDomainSyntax rules defined in  
     [FIRS-DNS], but if the target specifies an IPv4 address, that 
     element MUST conform to the inetIpv4NetworkSyntax rules defined in 
     [FIRS-IPV4], and so forth. 
  5.2.    LDAP Matching 
     FIRS clients MUST specify equalityMatch matching filters in LDAP 
     searches for network service entries. 
     In order to ensure that all of the relevant entries are found 
     (including any referrals), the search filters for these resources 
     MUST specify the inetService object class and the naming element 
     of the service. For example, "(&(objectclass=inetService) 
  Hall                   I-D Expires: March 2004              [page 8] 
  Internet Draft        draft-hall-firs-svc-01.txt          August 2003 
     (cn=http))" with a search base of 
     "cn=inetResources,dc=example,dc=com" would find all of the 
     inetService object class entries with a cn value of "http" in the 
     "dc=example,dc=com" partition. 
     The matching filters defined in this specification MUST be 
     supported by FIRS clients and servers. FIRS servers MAY support 
     additional matching filters, although FIRS clients MUST NOT expect 
     any additional filters to be available. 
  5.3.    Example Query 
     The following example assumes that the user wants to locate the 
     "http" service entry associated with the host: 
        a.  Normalize the elements into relative distinguished names, 
            which would be "cn=http" and "" in this 
            example. Prepare to use the service name as the seed for 
            the assertion value, and the target name as part of the 
            search base. 
        b.  Determine the canonical authoritative partition, which will 
            be based on the specified target in the default case. Using 
            the bottom-up model and this example, the authoritative 
            partition would be "dc=www,dc=example,dc=com" by default. 
        c.  Determine the search base for the query, which will be 
            dc=com" if the defaults are used. 
        d.  Initiate a DNS lookup for the SRV resource records 
            associated with "" For the 
            purpose of this example, assume that this lookup fails, and 
            that a subsequent fall-back query is issued for the parent 
            partition (as per the bottom-up processing rules as defined 
            in [FIRS-CORE]). 
            1.   Reset the default partition to "dc=example,dc=com". 
            2.   Reset the search base to ", 
            3.   Initiate a new DNS lookup for the SRV resource records 
                 associated with "" For the 
                 purpose of this example, assume that this lookup 
  Hall                   I-D Expires: March 2004              [page 9] 
  Internet Draft        draft-hall-firs-svc-01.txt          August 2003 
                 succeeds, with the DNS response message indicating 
                 that the "" is the preferred server. 
        e.  Submit an LDAPv3 query to the specified server, using 
            "(&(objectClass=inetService)(cn:dn:http)" as the matching 
            filter, ",cn=inetResources,dc=example, 
            dc=com" as the search base, and the global query defaults 
            defined in [FIRS-CORE]. 
        f.  Assume that no referrals are received. Display the answer 
            data which has been received and exit the query. 
  6.      Security Considerations 
     Security considerations are discussed in [FIRS-ARCH]. 
  7.      IANA Considerations 
     Usage profiles for individual services MUST be defined in 
     standards-track specifications for each service in order for those 
     definitions to have meaning. For example, the "http" service 
     examples described in this document are not valid unless and until 
     a formal specification describing that usage is defined in a 
     standards-track specification. 
     This specification requires that service names and transport 
     protocols be registered with IANA. This requirement also 
     specifically includes non-Internet services which are expected to 
     be used with this specification. 
     Additional IANA considerations are discussed in [FIRS-ARCH]. 
  8.      Normative References 
          [FIRS-ARCH]   Hall, E. "The Federated Internet Registry 
                         Service: Architecture and Implementation 
                         Guide", draft-ietf-crisp-firs-arch-03, May 
          [FIRS-ASN]    Hall, E. "Defining and Locating Autonomous 
                         System Numbers in the Federated Internet 
                         Registry Service", draft-ietf-crisp-firs-asn-
                         03, May 2003. 
          [FIRS-CONTCT] Hall, E. "Defining and Locating Contact 
                         Persons in the Federated Internet Registry 
                         Service", draft-ietf-crisp-firs-contact-03, 
                         May 2003. 
  Hall                   I-D Expires: March 2004             [page 10] 
  Internet Draft        draft-hall-firs-svc-01.txt          August 2003 
          [FIRS-CORE]   Hall, E. "The Federated Internet Registry 
                         Service: Core Elements", draft-ietf-crisp-
                         firs-core-03, May 2003. 
          [FIRS-DNS]    Hall, E. "Defining and Locating DNS Domains in 
                         the Federated Internet Registry Service", 
                         draft-ietf-crisp-firs-dns-03, May 2003. 
          [FIRS-DNSRR]  Hall, E. "Defining and Locating DNS Resource 
                         Records in the Federated Internet Registry 
                         Service", draft-ietf-crisp-firs-dnsrr-03, May 
          [FIRS-IPV4]   Hall, E. "Defining and Locating IPv4 Address 
                         Blocks in the Federated Internet Registry 
                         Service", draft-ietf-crisp-firs-ipv4-03, May 
          [FIRS-IPV6]   Hall, E. "Defining and Locating IPv6 Address 
                         Blocks in the Federated Internet Registry 
                         Service", draft-ietf-crisp-firs-ipv6-03, May 
          [RFC3377]     Hodges, J., and Morgan, R. "Lightweight 
                         Directory Access Protocol (v3): Technical 
                         Specification", RFC 3377, September 2002. 
  9.      Author's Addresses 
     Eric A. Hall 
  10.     Acknowledgments 
     Funding for the RFC editor function is currently provided by the 
     Internet Society. 
  11.     Full Copyright Statement 
     Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003). All Rights Reserved. 
     This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished 
     to others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise 
     explain it or assist in its implementation may be prepared, 
     copied, published and distributed, in whole or in part, without 
     restriction of any kind, provided that the above copyright notice 
  Hall                   I-D Expires: March 2004             [page 11] 
  Internet Draft        draft-hall-firs-svc-01.txt          August 2003 
     and this paragraph are included on all such copies and derivative 
     works. However, this document itself may not be modified in any 
     way, such as by removing the copyright notice or references to the 
     Internet Society or other Internet organizations, except as needed 
     for the purpose of developing Internet standards in which case the 
     procedures for copyrights defined in the Internet Standards 
     process must be followed, or as required to translate it into 
     languages other than English. 
     The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not 
     be revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns. 
     This document and the information contained herein is provided on 
  Hall                   I-D Expires: March 2004             [page 12]