Internet DRAFT - draft-hain-msword-template


Internet Draft                                        M.Gahrns 
Document: draft-hain-msword-template-08.txt          Microsoft 
Expires: October 2002                                 T. Hain 
                                                      April 2002 
         Using Microsoft Word to create Internet Drafts and RFC's 
Status of this Memo  
   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with 
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.  
   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering 
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that 
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months 
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any 
   time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference 
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."  
   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at   
   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at   
   This document will describe the steps to configure the Microsoft Word 
   application to produce documents in Internet Draft and RFC format.   
Table of Contents 
   1. Overview.......................................................2 
   2. Conventions used in this document..............................2 
   3. Instructions for producing Internet drafts and RFCs............3 
      3.1 Defining Microsoft Word Page Layout and Styles.............4 
      3.2 Positioning the document identifiers on the first page.....7 
      3.3 Automatic date.............................................8 
      3.4 Automatic reference numbering..............................9 
   4. Final fixup: the CRLF program.................................11 
   5. Known problems................................................15 
      5.1 Margins...................................................15 
      5.2 Printing..................................................16 
      5.3 The Underscore character..................................16 
   6. Formal Syntax.................................................16 
   7. Security Considerations.......................................17 
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   Author's Addresses...............................................18 
1. Overview  
   This document describes the steps to create a Microsoft Word 97 or 
   later template to assist those producing Internet drafts. The 
   resulting configuration allows for simple WYSIWYG editing of drafts 
   and RFCs while producing output that is in accordance with IETF draft 
   and RFC submission specifications. (72 Characters per line, 58 lines 
   per page, each line terminated by a CRLF, and each page followed by a 
   LF, etc.) Using Word's text justification and table capabilities may 
   facilitate creating ASCII stick drawings.  
   While the authors happen to have been employed by Microsoft during 
   much of this document's evolution, it is not a product of Microsoft 
   and is unsupported.   
   Included is a detailed description of how the RFC Text and RFC 
   Heading styles are defined. This should prove useful to those wishing 
   to do further customization work or create a similar template for 
   other versions of Microsoft Word.  
   It also includes a description and the source of the CRLF.EXE program 
   that is used to create the final text file output. Feedback about 
   this program is consistent with the fact that each version of Windows 
   has a slightly different Generic Printer driver. Since this document 
   will not be kept current with every Windows revision, the code sample 
   is provided as a basis for personal customizations.   
   Copies of the template in Microsoft Word format and the CRLF.EXE 
   program can be found at:  
   While the process described in this document can be used to create 
   Word format documents using the editions of Microsoft Word for 
   Windows or the Apple Macintosh, the actual text format file for 
   submission to the I-D or RFC editors is only available from the 
   Windows edition. This limitation is due to the lack of a Generic 
   Printer driver for the Macintosh. 
2. Conventions used in this document  

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   In this document the steps for walking a pull-down tree are indented 
   on subsequent lines. This allows abbreviation rather than a barrage 
   of 'then click' or 'select' strings in a paragraph form. Example:  
      About Microsoft Word  
3. Instructions for producing Internet drafts and RFCs  
   1) Microsoft Word's "auto-formatting" can result in some undesired 
      characters when creating the IETF standardized format. (I.e., it 
      will insert special characters for quotation marks, add special 
      formatting when creating lists, etc, which will appear as 
      unintelligible character sequences when displayed by plain-text 
      readers.)  To avoid this, turn off "auto formatting" 
   On the property pages 'AutoFormat' and 'AutoFormat As You Type', turn 
   off all of the auto formatting options. If you forget, or frequently 
   switch between IETF format and not, typing a ^Z after each auto-
   format event will undo the formatting change. This of course requires 
   awareness of the event.   
   2) Two special styles need to be defined: RFC Heading and RFC Text. 
   If you choose automatic reference numbering or table of contents 
   (defined below), the style for Endnote Reference, Endnote Text, and 
   TOC need to be modified.  The entire draft must be written using 
   these styles for the spacing to come out correctly.   
   This RFC has been produced using the styles & procedures defined 
   within.  You may follow the instructions below for creating the RFC 
   Heading and RFC Text styles or simply acquire a copy of the MS Word 
   (.rtf) file from one of the locations above, delete the body text, 
   insert your rfc text and apply the styles to the body and headers as 
   *** Do not use bold, underlining, italics, etc., or you will lose the 
   WYSIWYG editing feature since these settings affect the number of 
   characters that can occur on a line. When the resulting Internet 
   draft is saved as plain text, all that formatting will be lost 
   anyway. ***  
   3) Print the document to the Generic Text Printer, and save the 
   output to file.  If you do not have the Generic Text Printer driver 
   installed, install it from the Control Panel. (Printers, Add Printer, 
   local/My Computer, any LPT port (you will be printing to a file), 

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   select Generic, Generic/Text Only from the combo box). When you print 
   to a file a pop-up will ask for the file name.  
   4) Run the CRLF program in a DOS window to automatically add carriage 
      Usage is CRLF <source> <destination>  
   Where <source> is the name of the file produced by printing to the 
   generic text printer, and <destination> is the name of the text draft 
   you are producing. An example (where the files CRLF.EXE and draft-
   00.prn are in the C:/TEMP directory) would be:  
      cd c:/temp 
      crlf draft-00.prn draft-00.txt  
   5) Check that no non-ASCII characters have slipped in by viewing the 
   document with a simple text viewer.  The Unix program 'less'[1] will 
   highlight non-ASCII characters.  If a non-Microsoft operating systems 
   is not available, the Notepad program will display and not-try to re-
   interpret any special characters. 
3.1 Defining Microsoft Word Page Layout and Styles  
   These are settings used to define the RFC Text and RFC Heading 
   styles. Note: the menu options to set these are enclosed in 
   parenthesis and are listed for Microsoft Word 97.  They may differ 
   slightly for other versions of Microsoft Word.  
   1) Set measurement units to points.  
               Measurement units = points  
   2) Set margins as follows: (File, Page Setup, Margins)  
      Top:         24 pts   
      Bottom:      0 pts  
      Left:        0 pts  
      Right:       93.6 pts  
      Gutter:      0 pts  
      Header:      0 pts  
      Footer:      0 pts  
   The right margin is what determines 72 characters per line. Using 12 
   pt font, 10 chars/inch, 72 chars = 7.2".  Using paper that is 8.5" 
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   wide. 8.5" - 7.2" = 1.3" = 93.6 pts   If you get "one or more margins 
   are outside the printable area" message, select Ignore. This seems to 
   depend on the printer you currently have selected.   
   3) Set paper size as follows:  
         Page Setup   
            Paper Size  
               Width:  612 pt (8.5")  
               Height: 660 pt (12pt * 55 lines per page)  
   The height of the paper is what determines 55 lines per page.  
   4) Set headers/footers to be different for the first page.   
         Page Setup  
   5) Define a RFC Heading Style.  
   RFC Heading: Heading1 + Font:  Courier New, 12pt, Not Bold, Line 
   spacing exactly 12pt., Space before 0 pt after 0 pt, Level 1  
   NOTE: Line Spacing Exactly 12pt is very important. Set this through  
   Format: Paragraph  
   Additional Heading levels can be defined by repeating this step and 
   incrementing the Level #. If Numbered Headings are desired:  
         Bullets and Numbering  
            Outline Numbered  
               Select preferred style  
                     Link level to style RFC Heading  
   6) Define a RFC Text Style.  
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   RFC Text: Normal+Font: Courier New, 12pt, Indent: Left 21.6pt, Line 
   Spacing Exactly 12 pt.  
   Line Spacing and indent are set through Format, Paragraph.  This 
   leaves a 3 character left indent for the RFC text  
   7) Fix the Header Style.  
   Header:  Normal+Font: Courier New, 12pt, Line Spacing Exactly 12pt,  
   Clear the tabs previously defined, and add Tabs 252 pt Centered, 504 
   pt Right Flush  
   8) Fix the Footer Style.  
   Footer:  Normal+Font: Courier New, 12pt, Line Spacing Exactly 12pt,  
   Tabs 252 pt Centered, 504 pt Right Flush  
   9) Define your headers and footers for the first page.  
         (  on first page)  
      Header: No Header  
      Footer:  Blank line  
               Blank line  
      AuthorName <tab> <tab> [Page <page number field>]  
   10) Define subsequent headers and footers.  
            (on second page)  
      Header: <tab> Title <tab> Month, Year  
               Blank line  
               Blank line 
      Footer:  Blank line  
               Blank line  
      AuthorName <tab> Expiration <tab> [Page <page number field>]  
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   11) Set Tabs to be every three spaces. 
            RFC Text 
               Tabs: Left 21.6, 43.2, 64.8, 86.4, 108, 129.6, 
               151.2,172.8, 194.4, 216, 237.6, 259.2, 280.8, 
               302.4, 324, 345.6,367.2, 388.8, 410.4, 432, 
               453.6, 475.2, 496.8     
   12) Fix the Table-of-contents Styles. Repeat for each level.  
               TOC1: RFC text +, Automatically update, Clear all tabs, 
                  Add tab Rt. Flush, 504pt, ... leader 
               TOC2: RFC text + Indent: Left 43.2pt, 
                  Automatically update, Clear all tabs, 
                  Add tab Rt. Flush, 504pt, ... leader 
               TOC3: RFC text + Indent: Left 64.8pt, 
                  Automatically update, Clear all tabs, 
                  Add tab Rt. Flush, 504pt, ... leader 
3.2 Positioning the document identifiers on the first page  
   The 'Table' tool can be used to assist with justification of the  
   document identifiers on the first page. Each cell in the table 
   maintains its own justification characteristics, so getting left and 
   right justification on the same line is simplified. On the Toolbar 
   select the icon that looks like a grid with a dark bar across the 
   top. This will pop-up a table array. Drag the mouse across to select 
   the number of rows and columns (for the opening header 4 rows x 2 
   columns, unless there are several authors). Select the table that was 
   just inserted by click-and-hold in the left margin, and then clear 
   the boarders.   
         Borders and Shading  
   Select the cells on the right (position the cursor just above the top 
   cell, when the cursor becomes an arrow pointing down, click) and set 
   justification right. (The default is to take justification from the 
   line it is being positioned on, so the left column shouldn't need 
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   Move the center divider to the right if necessary for the document 
   title. Select the left column of cells, then position the cursor over 
   the dividing line. When it changes to parallel bars with right/left 
   arrows, click-and-hold, then drag the line as necessary.  
3.3 Automatic date  
   For those who frequently update drafts, and find they occasionally  
   forget to update the current save and expire dates, there is a way to 
   automate those fields. While it is rather complex to set up the 
   expire-month field, it only needs to be done once in a template file, 
   and all future drafts benefit.  
   To automatically set the current date on save, select the lower right 
   cell in the table created above, and insert the save date.  
            Date and Time  
               In the box below the sample "field codes", 
                  modify as necessary to make it look like:   
                  - SAVEDATE \@ "MMMM YYYY" - (between the -'s).   
   The field will have a gray background on the screen, but will not 
   affect the printed version. Double click on the field, copy, and then 
   replace the Month, Year in the header (10 in Layout Styles above) 
   with a paste.   
   Setting up the expire-date is similar, but requires inserting nested 
   fields. Select the location for the month then insert an IF field.  
   This will result in an error. Right click on the error message, and 
   select Toggle Field Codes. This will allow further editing. Select 
   the space after the initial IF, then insert another field: SaveDate  
   (as above but this time only the month digit is used "M"). Right 
   click on the number it inserts and Toggle Field Codes again. Follow 
   the right brace } with =, then the month to test, followed by the 
   month name 6 months later. At this point loop and insert another IF, 
   until all 12 are done. Follow the last one with a "" to complete the 
   syntax. The resulting expanded field code will look like:  
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   { IF { SAVEDATE  \@ "M" \* MERGEFORMAT } = 1 July { IF { SAVEDATE  \@ 
   "M" \* MERGEFORMAT } = 2 August { IF { SAVEDATE  \@ "M" \* 
   MERGEFORMAT } = 3 September { IF { SAVEDATE  \@ "M" \* MERGEFORMAT} = 
   4 October { IF { SAVEDATE  \@ "M" \* MERGEFORMAT } = 5 November { IF 
   { SAVEDATE  \@ "M" \* MERGEFORMAT } = 6 December { IF { SAVEDATE  \@ 
   "M" \* MERGEFORMAT } = 7 January { IF { SAVEDATE  \@ "M" \* 
   MERGEFORMAT } = 8 February { IF { SAVEDATE  \@ "M" \* MERGEFORMAT } = 
   9 March { IF { SAVEDATE  \@ "M" \* MERGEFORMAT } = 10 April { IF { 
   SAVEDATE  \@ "M" \* MERGEFORMAT } = 11 May { IF { SAVEDATE  \@ "M" \* 
   Space over and set the expire-year with a field in a similar manner. 
   This time there are only 2 IF fields, comparing halves of the year. 
   The printed value on true will be the SaveDate year value and the 
   expanded result will look like:  
   { IF { SAVEDATE \@ "M" \* MERGEFORMAT } < 7 { SAVEDATE \@ "YYYY" \* 
   MERGEFORMAT } { IF { SAVEDATE \@ "M" \* MERGEFORMAT } > 6 { = { 
   Revert the field codes to normal text by right click, Toggle Field 
   Codes or Update Field. Select both of these fields by clicking on one 
   then shift click on the other. Copy, then paste in the footer (9 & 10 
   in Layout Styles above) replacing the Month, Year.   
3.4 Automatic reference numbering  
   To support automatic updates of reference numbers, make the following 
   changes. (Requires the document to be a single section prior to the 
   Reference heading.)  
   1) Insert a section break on the line after Reference heading.  
            Section Break  
   2) Format the style of the Endnote References and Text.  
            Endnote reference   
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               Based on 'underlying paragraph'  
               Format Font   
               clear the check box for 'superscript'  
            Endnote text  
               Based on 'RFC text'  
               Format Paragraph   
                  Left    21.6  
                  Hanging 21.6  
   3) Set up the location of the references, and number style.  
               Place at 'End of section'  
               Numeric style '1,2,3'   
   4) Select the location for the first reference. Between the user 
   typed [ ] characters insert an endnote.   
         Footnote (endnote will already be selected, 
             as will auto 1,2,3)  
   When the endnote is inserted the lower pane will appear. Type in the 
   text describing the reference. The first time a reference is inserted 
   the Endnote Separator should be cleared (the continuation separator 
   may need it as well). Find the pull down just above the  
   reference text, and change it to each of the options to make sure all 
   but the 'All Endnotes' are cleared.   
      Endnote Separator   
         Select and delete any text  
   The reference number in the text and the endnote table will 
   automatically track as changes are made. If the endnote window is 
   closed and changes need to be made, select  

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   To add automatically updated cross-references for previous footnotes, 
   select the location of the cross-reference. Between the user typed [ 
   ] characters insert a cross-reference.  
            Select reference type 'endnote'  
            Clear the checkbox for 'Insert as hyperlink'  
            Select the reference from the endnote list   
4. Final fixup: the CRLF program  
   Each line needs to be terminated by a CRLF, but when printing your 
   document to the Generic Text Printer driver, some blank lines will be 
   terminated only with a line feed. Consider a traditional text line 
   printer, printing a line of text, followed by 3 blank lines.  The 
   output would look as follows:  
   Line of Text<CR><LF><LF><LF>.  
   This was done because there was no need to move the print carriage 
   head for the blank lines, only line feeds were necessary.  
   Following example provides source for a CRLF fixup program.  
    * CRLF.C - Sample source code to format documents produced by 
    * the MS Word IETF template so that they comply to IETF draft 
    * and RFC guidelines 
    * Change CR/FF ; FF/CR/LF ; FF/LF ; CR/FF/CR/LF  into CR/LF/FF 
      #include <stdio.h> 
      #include <io.h> 
      #include <fcntl.h> 
      #include <sys/types.h> 
      #include <sys/stat.h> 
      #include <memory.h> 
      #include <string.h> 
      #include <stdlib.h> 
      #define CR 13 
      #define LF 10 
      #define FF 12 
      #define TRUE 1 
      #define FALSE 0 
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      typedef int BOOL; 
      int main(int argc, char *argv[]) 
           int fSrc, fDest; 
           int iNumBytesRead; 
           int iNumLines; 
           char cr = CR; 
           char lf = LF; 
           char ff = FF; 
           unsigned char buff[3]; 
           BOOL bPrecedingCR = FALSE; 
           BOOL bPrecedingLF = FALSE; 
           BOOL bPrecedingFF = FALSE; 
           if(argc != 3) 
                   printf("    crlf <srcfile> <dstfile>\n\n"); 
                   return 0; 
      fSrc = open(argv[1], O_RDONLY | O_BINARY); 
      fDest = open(argv[2], O_CREAT | O_RDWR | O_BINARY | 
         O_TRUNC, S_IREAD | S_IWRITE); 
      if(fSrc == -1) 
         printf("Could not open file (%s) for reading.\n", 
               printf( strerror(errno)); 
                   return 0; 
           if(fDest == -1) 
                   printf("Count not open file (%s) for writing.\n", 
               printf( strerror(errno)); 
                   return 0; 
           // Using the MS Word with the generic text printer, an  
           // extra CR LF starts the file.  Skip over these first 2  
           // bytes, 
           iNumBytesRead = _read(fSrc, buff, 2); 
         bPrecedingCR = FALSE; 
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         bPrecedingLF = TRUE; 
         bPrecedingFF = FALSE; 
         iNumLines = 0; 
           // Prepare to parse through the file 
           iNumBytesRead = _read(fSrc, buff, 1); 
           while(iNumBytesRead > 0) 
            if (buff[0] == FF) 
               // Found FF 
               if (bPrecedingCR == TRUE) 
                  // Some drivers write CR/FF w/o LF 
                  // Insert LF between  
                  _write(fDest, &lf, 1); 
                  _write(fDest, &(buff[0]), 1); 
               else if (bPrecedingLF == TRUE) 
                  // If driver writes LF/FF, assume preceding CR   
               else if (bPrecedingFF == TRUE) 
                  // If we just set FF from line count, ignore this  
                  // one   
               else if (bPrecedingLF == FALSE && bPrecedingCR == FALSE) 
                  // Some drivers write FF alone ; insert CR/LF  
                  // for RFC rule of FF on line by itself 
                  _write(fDest, &cr, 1); 
                  _write(fDest, &lf, 1); 
                  _write(fDest, &(buff[0]), 1); 
               // reset flags 
               bPrecedingFF = TRUE; 
               bPrecedingCR = FALSE; 
               bPrecedingLF = FALSE; 
               iNumLines = 0; 
            else if (buff[0] == CR) 
               // Found CR  
               if (bPrecedingFF == TRUE) 
                  // Some drivers write CR/FF/CR/LF 
                  // ignore second CR/LF as it creates a 59th line 
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                  // This CR counts 
                  bPrecedingCR = TRUE; 
                  bPrecedingLF = FALSE; 
                  bPrecedingFF = FALSE; 
                  if (++iNumLines < 59) 
                     // Not end of page write it out  
                     _write(fDest, &(buff[0]), 1); 
                     // Some drivers write 66 lines per page as LF 
                     // write end of page & skip to next CR in LF test 
                     _write(fDest, &cr, 1); 
                     _write(fDest, &lf, 1); 
                     _write(fDest, &ff, 1); 
                     bPrecedingFF = TRUE; 
                     bPrecedingCR = FALSE; 
                     bPrecedingLF = FALSE; 
                     iNumLines = 0; 
            else if (buff[0] == LF && bPrecedingFF == TRUE) 
               // Ignore up LF to next CR 
            else if (buff[0] == LF && bPrecedingCR == TRUE) 
               // Found a LF after a preceding CR 
               // write it out and reset flags 
               bPrecedingLF = TRUE; 
               bPrecedingCR = FALSE; 
               bPrecedingFF = FALSE; 
               _write(fDest, &(buff[0]), 1); 
            else if (buff[0] == LF && bPrecedingCR == FALSE) 
               // Found a LF without a preceding CR 
               if (bPrecedingLF == TRUE) 
                  // Inject a CR to precede the LF only 
                  // if still in the first col 
                  if (++iNumLines < 59) 
                     // Not end of page write it out  
                     _write(fDest, &cr, 1); 
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                     _write(fDest, &(buff[0]), 1); 
                     bPrecedingLF = TRUE; 
                     // Driver writing longer than page 
                     // write end of page & skip to next CR 
                     _write(fDest, &cr, 1); 
                     _write(fDest, &lf, 1); 
                     _write(fDest, &ff, 1); 
                     iNumLines = 0; 
                     bPrecedingFF = TRUE; 
                     bPrecedingCR = FALSE; 
                     bPrecedingLF = FALSE; 
                  //ignore the random LF and clear flag 
                  bPrecedingLF = FALSE; 
               // Other text, write it out and clear flags 
               bPrecedingCR = FALSE; 
               bPrecedingLF = FALSE; 
               bPrecedingFF = FALSE; 
               _write(fDest, &(buff[0]), 1); 
            // Read next byte 
            iNumBytesRead = _read(fSrc, &buff[0], 1); 
         return 0; 
5. Known problems  
5.1 Margins  
   During the development of this document there were reports that 
   some version combinations of Windows and Word cut off characters on 
   the left. One approach to address this is to set the left and right 
   margins to 36 and 57.6, thus shifting the text right. If text 
   clipping was not a problem for the version combination, these values 
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   produce leading spaces. This doesn't affect the overall appearance, 
   but makes the file larger than necessary, and violates the RFC line 
   length rule. Adjustment of the margins for any specific version 
   combination of Windows and Word will have to be locally appropriate; 
   just make sure to move both in equal increments of 12 to the point 
   where all characters appear.  
5.2 Printing  
   If you try to print the draft you are working on from within 
   Microsoft Word to an actual printer (not to a file using the Generic 
   Text printer driver), you may receive an error message indicating the 
   margins are outside of the printable area of the printer.  If you 
   continue printing, the first 2 characters of each heading will be 
   truncated.  It is recommended you produce a printed copy of the draft 
   you are working on by using the CRLF program to produce a text file, 
   and then redirect it to a printer (so that you do not need to deal 
   with other programs like NOTEPAD, etc. adding their own margins.) 
   - Print to a file using the generic text printer  
   - CRLF draft.prn draft.txt  
   - NET USE lpt1 <\\printername\sharename>  
   - TYPE draft.txt > LPT1  
   As an alternative, if the final draft.txt file is opened with Word,  
   setting all 4 margins to .65" will position it on the page.  
      Page Setup  
      Top    .65  
      Bottom .65  
      Left   .65  
      Right  .65  
5.3 The Underscore character  
   If you use the underscore character "_" within the RFC Text and RFC 
   Heading style, it will not be displayed on most screens.  (It appears 
   as a blank space.)  It will print correctly and will appear as an 
   underscore character in the final draft output.  
6. Formal Syntax  
   The formal definition of RFC format is defined in RFC-2223 [2] and 
   Internet Draft instructions are available at [3].      

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7. Security Considerations  
   Caution is advised when opening any document that may contain a macro 
   virus. The template files originally provided to the Internet-drafts 
   & RFC editors did not contain any macros, and unless tampered with 
   should not now. If there are concerns about using the template doc 
   file, the instructions provided here will allow creation of one from 
   scratch. Further details about Microsoft Word macro virus concerns 
   are available at: To find the current 
   documents, search for 'macro virus'.  
   2 RFC 2223 J. Postel, J. Reynolds, "Instructions to RFC Authors", RFC 
      2223, October 1997 

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    The authors would like to acknowledge the comments from around the 
    community to help refine this document. Particular recognition goes 
    to DJ Son and Aaron Falk of the RFC Editor staff for aligning the 
    details with the current RFC Editor process. 
 Author's Addresses  
    Mike Gahrns  
    One Microsoft Way            Phone:  1-425-936-9833  
    Redmond, Wa. USA             Email:  
    Tony Hain  
    500 108th Ave                Phone:  1-425-468-1061  
    Bellevue, Wa. USA            Email:  

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