Internet DRAFT - draft-aranda-qospolicy

draft-aranda-qospolicy



			                       
					      
Internet Draft		    		P.A.Aranda Gutierrez (Telefonica),
Expires: June 26, 2007			I. Miloucheva (Fraunhofer),
					Ch. Chassot, K. Drira (CNRS-LAAS),
					A. Flitzikowski (UAM), 
					S. Rao (TELSCOM)
                                        Ch. Brandauer (Salzburg Research),
					S. Antonio (University of Napoli),
                                        				       
							  February 2007
							 

      QoS policies for heterogeneous access network environment
                    draft-aranda-qospolicy-00.txt

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   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).     

Abstract 

   This document discusses policy concepts for management of Quality of 
   Services (QoS) of applications in heterogeneous Internet environment. 
   A framework is given for definitions of policies for configuration 
   and automated adaptation of network resources, application 
   transport parameters and QoS measurement scenarios dependent on the
   capabilities of heterogeneous access networks.
   Currently, the IETF QoS policy work is aimed at "specifying
  
 
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   and representing policies that administer, manage and control access to 
   network QoS resources" based on DiffServ and  IntServ technologies 
   [5].
   To enhance this model, policies for management of QoS of 
   heterogeneous network infrastructures are proposed in this document.
   Based on the capabilities of heterogeneous access networks, 
   the QoS policies for heterogeneous environment allow dynamic 
   configuration and adaptation of network resource reservations, 
   application transport parameters and QoS measurement scenarios. 
   The policies are defined for different actors, such as users, 
   application service providers and network operators. 
   The hierarchical policy management is based on rules specifying 
   adaptation of parameters of policies of actors with hierarchical 
   relationships. 
 
Table of Contents

   1.   Introduction...................................................  2
   2.   Terminology used in this document..............................  3
   3.   QoS policies for heterogeneous environment...................... 4
     3.1 Actors and different kind of QoS policies...................... 4
     3.2 Resource policies.............................................  5
     3.3 Transport policies............................................  7
     3.4 QoS measurement policies......................................  8
   4.   Heterogeneous networks QoS policy information model (HQPIM).... 10
   5.   Actor oriented hierarchical policy concept.......... .......... 11
   6.   Conclusion and further work.................................... 12
   References...........................................................13
   Author's Addresses.................................................. 14

1. Introduction
    
   In this document, QOS policy framework is discussed, which is aimed at 
   automated management of QoS of applications and network resources in 
   heterogeneous networking environment considering business goals of users,
   service providers, and network operators. 
   The proposed concept of QoS policies for heterogeneous networks (HQPIM)
   is related to the IETF QoS policy work and extends it for further QoS 
   business goals in heterogeneous network environment. 
   IETF policy networking is aimed at representing, managing, sharing, and 
   reusing policies in a vendor independent, interoperable, and scalable 
   manner based on the Common Open Policy Service (COPS) protocol [1], [2]. 
   IETF has also defined an extensible information model for representing 
   policies - Policy Core Information Model (PCIM) [3] and the Common 
   Information Model (CIM) [4]. 
   QoS policies are defined by IETF documents to represent basic goals 
   for network device resource configuration using IntServ and DiffServ 
   technologies. QoS management is addressed by the QoS Policy 
   Information Model (QPIM) [5].  Further documents are addressing policy 
   issues for management of network device QoS datapath mechanisms [6], [7].  
  

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    The QoS policy model for heterogeneous networks presented in this 
   document extents the IETF QoS policy information model considering 
   further QoS mechanisms and business goals specific for QoS management 
   in heterogeneous networking infrastructures.
   Policies in heterogeneous networks can be used to adapt QoS according 
   business goals based on the evaluation of the characteristics (capabilities)
   of particular networks.
   Such polices can be used for:
   - optimal access network selection in case of handover, routing and connection 
     redirection;
   - resource and service adaptation in heterogeneous network environment;
   - management of the interactions between heterogeneous networks for QoS 
     provision;
   - traffic optimization and QoS based routing in heterogeneous networking
     environment.

   There are different approaches for QoS management in 
   heterogeneous networks based on policies.
   Policies can be used for the optimization of the wireless access network 
   selection in heterogeneous environment considering specific goals. 
   Such goals can be expressed by QoS parameter constraints, radio channel 
   characteristics, resource availability, and other requirements [8].
   Policies can consider QoS requirements of specific services in heterogeneous
   environment, for instance one-to-many applications in 3G-broadcasting
   cooperative networks [10]. 
   QoS Policies for heterogeneous networks can be focussed on management 
   of administrative domain, access technology, terminal and application 
   characteristics [11]. 
   Specific languages, such as Chameleos [12], are used to describe QoS
   policies in heterogeneous environment, for instance to map a meta-policy, 
   such as access control policy to the particular access control mechanisms 
   of the heterogeneous systems.  
   In this document, we give a framework for definitions of QoS policies 
   for configuration and automated adaptation of network resources, 
   application transport parameters and QoS measurement scenarios 
   dependent on the capabilities of heterogeneous access networks and QoS 
   requirements (business goals) of different kind of actors.
   
    
2. Terminology used in this document 
    
   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", 
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in 
   this document are to be interpreted as described in [9].
    
   Abbreviations used in the following text:
        PCIM   Core Information Model
        COPS   Common Open Policy Service
        QPIM   QoS Policy Information Model
        HQPIM  Heterogeneous networks QoS policy information model. 
   

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   This Draft considers the terminology for Policy-based management [13] 
   and extends it to specify policies considering capabilities of 
   heterogeneous access networks. 

   Resource policy – Policy aimed at resource configuration 
   and adaptation for applications in heterogeneous environment dependent 
   on user/service provider/ network operator preferences, and network 
   capabilities.
   
   Transport policy – Policy aimed at configuration and adaptation of 
   transport parameters of applications at particular network in order 
   to achieve desired performance dependent of user/service provider/network
   operator preferences, QoS requirements and network capabilities.

   QoS measurement policy – Policy aimed at configuration and adaptation of 
   QoS  measurements in heterogeneous network environment dependent on the 
   user/service provider/network operator preferences and network 
   capabilities.

   Reinforcement learning – Algorithms for adaptation of higher level policies 
   based on monitoring data and adaptation of lower level policies.

   Hierarchical policy rules – Rules aimed at adaptation of lower layer 
   policies by parameters of higher level policies considering hierarchical 
   relationships of policy actors.

   Policy actor – Subject, which business goals are presented with the policy. 
   Examples for actors are user, service provider, network operator.
   
  
3. QoS policies for  heterogeneous access network environment 
   

   3.1. Actors and different kind of QoS policies

   Heterogeneous Internet IPv6/IPv4 environment can be based on mobile and 
   fixed access networks with different capabilities (QoS). 
   There are different actors, which can use policies to enhance the QoS 
   provision for applications in such environment dependent on their particular
   goals, preferences and conditions. Such actors are users (customers), service
   providers and network operators, which are able to enter their high-level 
   business goals and policy information into the system. 
   Hierarchical relationships of policies can be defined based on the 
   dependencies of the policy actors. 
   For instance, the user can specify QoS measurement policies considering 
   related policies of the service provider and the network operator. 
   The actors can be interested in the monitoring of different Qos characteristics,
   such as QoS parameter, anomalies, traffic measurements, route path quality 
   and other [14]. The particular set of the QoS characteristics, Which are
   monitored by the measurement scenarios for the different networks, 
   can be selected by policies.  
  
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   Dependent on the QoS management goals of the actors, there are different kinds 
   of policies, which can be specified for heterogeneous environment. 

   - Resource policies for configuration and adaptation of resource reservations
     in heterogeneous access network environment dependent on the actor's
     (i.e. user/service provider/ operator) preferences and the network 
     capabilities. 
     The resource allocation for a particular network and device, can be adapted
     dynamically using resource policies enforced by specific conditions. 
     In heterogeneous network environment, the different actors can use resource 
     policies based on different goals and preferences. 
    
   - Transport policy aimed at automated configuration and adaptation of 
     flow control parameters of applications  in heterogeneous access network 
     environment in order to achieve desired performance dependent on the actor's 
     (user/ service provider/network operator) preferences and the network 
     capabilities.
     An example for transport policy is transport parameter adaptation  
     (rate, window) of QoS aware mobile application, when mobile user moves 
     between different access networks. 

   - QoS measurement/monitoring policies are aimed at configuration and 
     adaptation of QoS/SLA measurement scenarios in heterogeneous network 
     environment dependent on the user/service provider/network operator 
     preferences and network capabilities. 

   The next sections observe different kind of policies for heterogeneous 
   environment and gives particular examples. 
 
3.2. Resource policies

   Resource policies control dynamically the (re-)configuration 
   of resources at network devices dependent on the actor preferences and
   capabilities of the networks. 
   IETF RFC 3644[5] defines resource policies for the network 
   operator based on IntServ/RSVP and DiffServ technologies. 
   This document extends the IETF resource usage policy concepts 
   considering different policy actors and resource mapping to 
   heterogeneous access networks (for instance UMTS, WIMAX, WLAN, 
   DVB-T, DVB-H) with different QoS capabilities.
   Dependent on their hierarchical relationships, the actors have 
   different possibilities to control the resource reservations 
   using policies. 
   The resource policies of the different actors are hierarchically
   dependent considering the actors dependencies. For example,
   the network operator can define policies for automated resource parameter 
   configuration and adaptation (for instance using DiffServ or IntServ/RSVP)
   for heterogeneous network devices considering the specific network 
   capabilities and traffic/performance optimisation criteria. 
   


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   Using policies, the application service provider can specify more specific
   preferences for resource usage, which are derived from the network 
   provider's policies.  
   Finally, the user (customer) can adapt the resource reservation policies
   of network and service provider’s considering his own resource priorities 
   for heterogeneous network environment. 
   Some resource policies for heterogeneous environment are summarised 
   below:
   
   - Configuration and adaptation of resources for network devices in 
     heterogeneous network environment 

   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Policy goal    | Automated resource (re-) configuration at particular |
   |               | network device of heter. env. using common interface |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+ 
   |Actors         |                  					  |
   |		   |	Network Operator 				  |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Preferences	   |	Maximum traffic load threshold per resource class | 					  |
   |		   |		not exceeded				  |					  |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Conditions	   | Proactive or reactive network planning triggers      |
   |		   |			......				  |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Actions	   |    Reservations per resource classes at particular	  |
   |		   | network device using common interface		  |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+

   - On-demand Resource configuration & adaptation for applications in 
     heterogeneous network environment

   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Policy goal    | Automated on-demand resource (re-) configuration for |
   |               | application in particular network                    |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+ 
   |Actors         |                  					  |
   |		   |	Network Operator -> Service Provider -> User      |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Preferences	   |Dependent on the actors preferences can be selected   |				  |
   |               |    - Resources for maximum QoS guarantee             |					  |
   |		   |	- Minimum cost resource reservation	          |					  |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Conditions	   | Handover, Network change, Failure, Load exceeded,    |
   |		   | Congestion,....					  |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Actions	   |    Reservations of resource classes for applications |
   |		   | at particular network       		          |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+


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3.3.	Transport policies for applications

   Transport policies specify configuration and adaptation of 
   transport parameters of applications at particular network in order 
   to achieve desired performance dependent of user/service provider/network
   operator preferences, QoS requirements and network capabilities.
   Transport-level policies aim to improve performances of applications in case 
   of constraints changes (e.g. access network changing, resource adaptation) 
   or requirements evolving, by dynamically modifying either parameters of 
   transport mechanisms (e.g. parameter of a partially reliable mechanism) 
   or transport protocol internal architecture (e.g. replacement of a mechanism, 
   typically a micro protocol, by a best suited one) [15], [16]. 
   In the first case, the adaptation is a behavioral adaptation; 
   in the second case, it is an architectural adaptation. 
   Dynamic changes depend on evolving preferences and requirements expressed 
   for instance by different kinds of actors, typically, user, application or 
   service provider, and also depend on the constraints and capabilities of the 
   networks. 
   An example of behavioral adaptation–oriented transport policy in 
   heterogeneous environment is the modification of the transmission rate 
   of the application, when there is a change of the network capabilities 
   (bandwidth). A specific case can be defined for automated transport parameter
   change in case of redirection of the application traffic from DVB-H to WLAN, 
   or from Ethernet 10 Mb/s to Ethernet 100 Mb/s. 

   An example of architectural adaptation–oriented transport policy in 
   heterogeneous environment is the replacement of a window-based congestion 
   control by a rate-based congestion control when the application requires 
   slow bandwidth variations.
   Adaptation rules can be defined using hierarchically related transport 
   policies. For instance, two high level policies, namely per connection 
   handling, and per group of connections handling, may be defined by a user
   to guide the transport-level adaptation. Per connection handling means that
   the adaptation rules are applied independently, connection per connection, 
   to optimize the QoS provided to the applications using these connections. 
   Per group of connections handling means that several connections may be 
   coordinated by the adaptation rules, allowing taking into account 
   preferences expressed by the user between several of his/her applications. 
   Both policies are refined in operational rules that consist in composition
   and parameterization rules of the transport protocol implementing each 
   connection. 
   These policies may be extended, generalized and applied to serve adaptation
   for the group communication modules used in the upper middleware layers [17].

   Some examples for transport policies are:

   -  Configuration and adaptation of transport mechanisms 
      (e.g. window-based, or rate based or discarding-based congestion control) 
      to support specific QoS parameters using “default” resources at 
      particular network in heterogeneous network environment. 


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   +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Policy goal    | Optimisation of application performance for           |
   |               | heterogeneous networks  based on                      |        
   |               | automated (re-) configuration of flow control         |
   |               | parameter (for rate or window control) of applications|
   +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+ 
   |Actors         |                  					   |
   |		   |	Service Provider -> User	                   |
   +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Preferences	   |	transport parameter preferences are selected       | 					  
   |               |    considering the capabilities of particular network,| 
   |               |    (“low” quality video at WLAN, or “high” quality    |  
   |               |        video at DVB-T)		                   |					  
   +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Conditions	   | Handover, application redirection                     |
   |		   |			......				   |
   +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Actions	   |  (Re-) configuration of flow control parameters and   |
   |               |  other transport mechanisms of application            |
   +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+

   - Insertion of an additional micro protocol handling classification and 
     marking to benefit from  differentiation provided by the access network

   +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Policy goal    | Adaptation of micro protocol handling classification  |
   |               | for optimisation of performance                       |
   +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+ 
   |Actors         |                  					   |
   |		   |	Service Provider -> User                           |
   +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Preferences	   |	can select preferences for transport parameters    |
   |               |     considering the capabilities of access network,   |					  
   |		   |	such as management of different access categories  |        
   |               |    provided by IEEE 802.11e                           |			 
   +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Conditions	   |    Network change, Failure, Load exceeded,            |
   |		   |    Congestion,....					   |
   +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Actions	   |   Insertion of an additional micro protocol           |
   |               |   handling classification and marking                 |
   +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+

3.4.	QoS measurement policy
	
   Each network provider has QoS measurement policies to measure and report 
   the quality of the applications dependent on the QoS/SLA. Measurement 
   policies can be used to support tasks, such as proactive QoS planning, 
   QoS problem and anomaly detection.


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   QoS measurement policies for heterogeneous environment are aimed at 
   monitoring of the QoS behaviour dependent on QoS requirements, preferences 
   of the actors and network capabilities. 
  
   These policies are based on actions performing specific measurement scenarios
   for monitoring of the behaviour in heterogeneous environment. 
   There are different parameters, which can be monitored in such scenarios - 
   performance metrics of applications, traffic load, routing behaviour.
   The policies and their corresponding measurement scenarios can be adapted
   dynamically to support more efficient QoS/SLA of applications with monitoring
   data and to detect better problems in the heterogeneous infrastructure. 
   Besides the network providers, service providers and users (customers) 
   can be interested to configure and adapt dynamically the QoS measurement
   policies.  

   Service provider and users (customers) can adapt the network provider’s 
   policies according their own demands. 
   The network operator can get the feedback from the adapted measurement 
   policies of the service providers and users in order to improve / 
   optimise his/her own policies.  
   The policy adaptation can be based on using of rules and 
   reinforcement learning algorithms.

   -  Configuration and adaptation of measurement policies for QoS 
   monitoring of particular application in heterogeneous access network 
   environment  


   +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Policy goal    | Automated measurement policy (re-configuration) for   |
   |               | QoS/SLA monitoring of applications                    |        
   |               | in heterogeneous networking environment         |
   +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+ 
   |Actors         |                  					   |
   |		   |	Network Operator -> Service Provider -> User	   |
   +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Preferences	   |	Measurement cost, enhanced                         | 					  
   |		   |		QoS guarantee......		           |					  
   +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Conditions	   |    Proactive, reactive planning triggers,             |
   |		   |			......				   |
   +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Actions	   |  (Re-) configuration of QoS monitoring scenario for   |
   |               |  application                                          |
   +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+


   - Configuration and adaptation of measurement policies to detect anomalies
     in different networks of heterogeneous access network environment 


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   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Policy goal    | Automated measurement policy (re-)configuration for  |
   |               | anomaly detection in heterogeneous environment       |  
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+ 
   |Actors         |                  					  |
   |		   |	Network Operator -> Service Provider -> User      |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Preferences	   |	  Measurement cost, enhanced                      |
   |               |        QoS guarantee......                           |					  |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Conditions	   | Failure detection, proactive, reactive planning      |
   |		   |                    ...			          |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
   |Actions	   |  (Re-) configuration of QoS monitoring scenario for  |
   |               |   for anomaly detection of the heterogeneous         |
   |               |         infrastructure                               |
   +----------------------------------------------------------------------+


4. Heterogeneous network QoS policy information model  


   The IETF QoS policy information model (QPIM)  
   is based on resource configuration policies for network operators based on
   DiffServ and IntServ QoS technologies [RFC 3644]. 
   The heterogeneous networks QoS policy information (HQPIM) model
   proposed in this document builds upon it considering also IETF Policy Core
   Information Model [RFC 3060] and its extensions as specified in [RFC 3460]

   HQPIM is addressing QoS policies, which are mapped to the capabilities 
   of heterogeneous data link access networks. 
   HQPIM is based on information base describing:

   - capabilities of heterogeneous networks and their relationships to the 
   network resource usage, 
   - Applications with their  appropriate flow control parameters for 
   particular networks and 
   - QoS/SLA measurement strategies and scenarios for different heterogeneous 
   networks. 
   HQPIM design is using the information for policies controlling: 
   - resource usage (configuration and adaptation of resources of network 
   devices), 
   - application transport (flow control parameters and behaviour of 
   applications) at particular network and 
   - QoS measurement strategies dependent on the capabilities of the networks.

   In figure 1, the general HQPIM description is shown. 


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         Information base                           Policy information

                                                 +-----------------------+
      +-------------------+                      |Network resource       |
      |QoS Capabilities   |                      | (re-) configuration ->|
      |of data link layer --->+                  |  Adaptation of        |
      | (UMTS,WLAN,DVB-H, |   |                  |  QoS parameters       |
      |WiMAX, 802.x, etc.)|   |         +------->+    to network         |
      +-------------------+   |         |        |    technology         |
                              |         |        +-----------------------+
  +-----------------------+   |         |
  |  QoS mechanisms  of   |   |         |        +-------------------+
  |     network layer     +-->+         |        |  Application      |
  |(Diffserv,IntServ,MPLS)|   |         |        |   transport       |
  |                       |   V         |        |(re-)configuration |
  +-----------------------+   ++-----+---+--+    |        ->         |
                              | QoS policy  |    |   Adaptation of   |
                              |     for     +--->+ flow control to   |
                              |heterogeneous|    |   heterogeneous   |
                              |   network   |    |    networks       |
        +---------------+     ++------------+    +-------------------+
        |Transport      |     A          |
        |parameters of  |     |          |
        |applications   +---->+          |       +--------------------+
        |for heter.netw.|     |          |       |  QoS measurement   |
        +---------------+     |          |       | (re-)configuration |
                              |          |       |         ->         |
           +------------+     |          |       |  Optimisation of   |
           |Measurement |     |          |       |  QoS measurement   |
           |& Monitoring+---->+          +------>+  strategies for    |
           |Parameters  |                        |  heterog. networks |
           +------------+                        +--------------------+

   Figure 1: Heterogeneous networks QoS policy (HQPIM) information model
  


   5.	Actor oriented hierarchical policy concept  

   The IETF policy core information model [RFC 3060] and its extension [RFC 3460] 
   are based on hierarchical relationships considering policy set, policy group 
   and policy rule concepts. 
   Based on the different actors specifying QoS policies in heterogeneous access 
   network environment,  an additional hierarchical relationship of QoS policy 
   can be derived from the dependencies of the policy actors - users, service 
   providers and network operators. 
   The actor based hierarchical policy relationship can be used for automated 
   policy adaptation considering different restrictions of the actors for usage 
   of the particular networks and their resources in the heterogeneous network 
   environment. 


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   The network operator policies give the framework for specification of policies 
   of the service provider and network operator. The user can specify policies 
   based on the QoS restrictions defined by the service provider and network 
   operator.  Also the interactions of policies of different network operators must 
   be considered, when configuring the policies at the lower layers for service 
   providers and users.

   In order to handle automatically hierarchical policy dependencies of different 
   actors, hierarchical policy rules are defined. 
   The hierarchical policy rules specifies the automated adaptation of lower layer 
   policies by parameters of higher level policies considering hierarchical 
   relationships of policy actors. These rules are triggered at time of
   specification and enforcement of a dependent policy (i.e. lower layer policy).

   The actor oriented hierarchical policy management model is illustrated 
   in figure 2:


      +--------------+      +----------------+           +----------------+
      |              |----->|  Policies of   |---------->|                |
      |              |      |Network Operator|           |                |
      |              |      +----------------+           |                |
      | Hierarchical |              |                    | Reinforcement  |
      | policy rules |              V                    | learning rules |
      |     for      |      +----------------+           | for automated  |
      |   automated  |----->|  Policies of   |---------->|  adaption of   |
      |configuration |<-----|Service Provider|<----------|  higher level  |
      |and adaptation|      +----------------+           | policies based |
      |of lower layer|              |                    |on adaptation of|
      |   policies   |              V                    |  lower level   |
      |              |      +-----------------+          |    policies    |
      |              |      |   Policies of   |          |                |
      |              |----->|Users (Customers)+--------->|                |
      +--------------+      +-----------------+          +----------------+

     Figure 2: Actor oriented hierarchical policy adaptation
   

   In addition to the hierarchical mapping and adaptation, there are 
   additional rules for automated adaptation of higher level policies using 
   “feedback” information from the policies of lower layers. 
   These rules can be based on the learning algorithms, in particular 
   using reinforcement learning techniques. 
  
6. Conclusion and further work
   
   A framework for QoS management in heterogeneous network environment was 
   discussed. 
   

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   The heterogeneous network QoS policy model (HQPIM) was presented and related 
   to the IETF QPIM [5]. HQPIM flexibility for new business scenarios was argued  
   based on different kinds of policies - resource, transport and measurement. 
   and actor-oriented hierarchical policy adapation. 
   The EU IST project NETQOS is focussed on the implementation of the concepts 
   in this draft [18].


   References 
  
   [1]     J. Boyle, R. Cohen, D. Durham, S. Herzog, R. Rajan, 
                 and A. Sastry, "The COPS (Common Open Policy Service)
                 Protocol", RFC 2748, January 2000.


   [2]     K. Chan, D. Durham, S. Gai, S. Herzog, K. McCloghrie,
                 F. Reichmeyer, J. Seligson, A. Smith, and R.
                 Yavatkar, "COPS Usage for Policy Provisioning (COPS-
                 PR)", RFC 3084, March 2001.
   
   [3] 	   B. Moore, E. Elleson, J. Strassner, A. Westerinen, “Policy 
                 Core Information Model-Version 1 Specification”, 
                 RFC 3060, February 2001.
  
   [4]     B. Moore, “Policy Core Information Model (PCIM) Extensions”, 
                 RFC 3460, January 2003.

   [5]     Y. Snir, Y. Ramberg, J. Strassner, R. Cohen, B. Moore, 
                 “Policy Quality of Service (QoS) Information Model”, 
                 RFC 3644, November 2003.

   [6]     R. Sahita, S. Hahn, K. Chan, K. McCloghrie, "Framework Policy 
                 Information Base Information Model for Describing Network
                 Device QoS Datapath Mechanisms”, RFC 3318, March 2003.

   [7]     B. Moore, D. Durham,  J. Strassner, A. Westerinen, W. Weiss, 
                 “Information Model for Describing Network Device QoS 
                 Datapath Mechanisms",RFC 3670, January 2004.
   
   [8]     K. Murray, R. Mathur, D. Pesch, “Intelligent Access and 
                 Mobility Management in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks 
                 using Policy”, Workshop on adaptive systems for 
                 ubiquitous computing, Pages: 181 – 186, 200. 

   [9]     S. Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate 
                 Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.


   [10]    L. Huang, K. A. Chew, R. Tafazolli, “Network selection for 
                 One-to-Many Services In 3G-Broadcasting Cooperative 
                 Networks”, 2005

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   [11]    X. Gao, G. Wu, T. Miki, „QoS Framework for Mobile Heterogeneous
                 Networks“, 2003

   [12]    L. Teo, G.-J. Ahn, “Supporting Access Control Policies Across
                 Multiple Operating Systems”, 43rd ACM Southeast Conference,
                 Kennesaw, GA, USA, March 18-20, 2005

   [13]    A. Westerinen, J. Schnizlein, J. Strassner, M. Scherling, R. Quinn, 
                 S. Herzog, A. Huynh, M. Carlson, J. Perry, J. and M. Waldbusser,
                 "Terminology for Policy-based  Management", RFC 3198, 
                 November 2001.

   [14]    I. Miloucheva, P.A. Gutierrez, D. Hetzer, A.Nassri, M.. Beoni,  
                 “INTERMON architecture for complex QoS analysis in inter-domain
                 environment based on discovery of topology and traffic impact,” 
                 2nd International Workshop on Inter-domain Performance and 
                 Simulation, Budpaest, Hungary, February, 2004

   [15]    J. Mocito, N. Almeida, A. Lopes, H. Miranda, J. Mocito, L. Rodrigues, 
                 L. Rosa, "Context Adaptation of the Communication Stack", 
                 International Journal of Parallel, Emergent and Distributed 
                 Systems, Vol. 21, Issue 3, June 2006, pp. 169-181.

   [16]    N. Van Wambeke, F. Armando, C. Chassot, E. Exposito, "Architectures
                 and models for transport protocols self-adaptation", 
                 2nd International IEEE Workshop on Service Oriented 
                 Architectures in Converging Networked Environments (SOCNE'07),
                 Niagara Falls, Canada, May 21-23, 2007.

   [17]    C. Chassot, K. Guennoun, K. Drira, F. Armando, E. Exposito, A. Lozes,
                 "Towards autonomous management of QoS through model-driven 
                 adaptability in communication-centric systems", 
                 International Transactions on Systems Science and Applications
                 (ITSSA), Special issue on Self-Organizing Communications, 
                 vol.2, n°3, September 2006, pp. 255-264.

   [18]    IST project, "Policy Based Management of Heterogeneous Networks for
                 Guaranteed QoS (NETQOS)", www.ist-netqos.org

Author's Addresses 
    
P.A Aranda Gutierrez          
Telefonica, Investigacion y Desarrollo, S.A.U.
ES-28034 Madrid, Spain
Phone: +34-91-337-4702
Email: paag@tid.es

Ilka Miloucheva               
Fraunhofer Institute, SATCOM FOKUS,Schloss Birlinghoven	
53757 Sankt Augustin, Germany
Phone: +49-2241-14-3471
Email: ilka.miloucheva@fokus.fraunhofer.de
	

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Christophe CHASSOT		       
LAAS/CNRS - Groupe Outils et Logiciels pour la Communication
31077 Toulouse cedex 04, France
Phone: +5 61 33 78 16
Email : chassot@laas.fr            

Adam Flizikowski 		
Adam Mickiewicz University (UAM), Department of Applied Informatics
61-614 Poznan, Poland
Phone: +48-505-086-892
Email: adamf@amu.edu.pl

Sathya Rao			
TELSCOM
Bern, Switzerland
Phone: +41 31 3762033
Email: rao@telscom.ch

Christof Brandauer              
Fax: 0043 662 2288441
Salzburg Research, Austria
Phone: +43 662 2288447
Email: christof.brandauer@salzburgresearch.at

Salvatore D'Antonio
Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per l'Informatica (CINI)
80124 Napoli, Italia
Email: saldanto@unina.it 

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