Internet DRAFT - draft-allan-y1711-and-lsp-ping
Internet Draft David Allan
Document: draft-allan-y1711-and-lsp-ping-00.txt Nortel Networks
Category: Informational February 2003
Y.1711 and LSP-PING
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Copyright(C) The Internet Society (2003). All Rights Reserved.
This internet draft shows that that the OAM tools defined by
ITU-T SG13/Q3 and the IETF are complementary.
Sub-IP ID Summary
[to be removed when published]
WHERE DOES IT FIT IN THE PICTURE OF THE SUB-IP WORK
Fits in the MPLS, PWE and PPVPN boxes.
WHY IS IT TARGETED AT THESE WGs
This draft shows that LSP-PING and Y.1711 can be considered to be
complementary tools in the suite of options to measure and
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Y.1711 and LSP-PING
[Y1711] and [LSP-PING] are products of the ITU-T SG13/Q3 and the
IETF MPLS WG respectively. Each is reflective of the design
philosophies of the communities of their origin.
The purpose of this draft is to compare and contrast design
elements of the two approaches. The conclusion drawn is that the
approaches are complementary and comprehensive instrumentation of
MPLS is ultimately possible using both.
Y.1711 and its proposed extensions is primarily focused on fault
management and availability measurement for MPLS. The major design
objective of Y.1711 as it currently stands is fast, simple and
automatic defect detection and handling. A secondary goal is to be
able to measure availability simply. It trades precision in fault
isolation in return for this fast/simple/automatic defect
detection/handling capability (frequently referred to as "bounded
detection time"). This manifests itself in a number of design
- The basic CV probe has been ruthlessly simplified to minimize
processing. Frequent injection of CV probes into the network does
not degrade the network. This manifests itself in a small number of
Frequent injection of CV probes is a prerequisite for
consistent/deterministic defect detection/handling and availability
measurement. Injection of CV probes into LSPs from multiple sources
(MP2P possibly with ECMP) is assumed to result in arrival rates at
the LSP egress bursting at line rate.
- The CV probe is augmented with defect notification PDUs, FDI for
the forward direction, and BDI for the reverse direction. These are
used for alarm suppression and control of performance measurement
functions. BDI has limited applicability given that most LSPs are
uni-directional, however it is very useful for interworking OAM
with bi-directional PW clients (e.g. ATM).
- A slightly more sophisticated probe type, the FEC-CV (under
study) can carry aggregated FEC information (in the form of a bloom
filter) such that a significant amount of configuration information
that is bound to the LSP can be verified in a single transaction.
Simple boolean operations on the bloom filter at the LSP
egress can be used to detect misbranching while being tolerant of
inbound filtering and other artifacts of network operations.
- Probe processing is primarily performed at the egress such that
for uni-directional LSPs, there is minimal ambiguity in detecting
failure. This is also required to take the appropriate consequent
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Y.1711 and LSP-PING
actions, eg to inform higher layer clients of lower layer failures
and thus avoid generating alarm storms in inappropriate places, or
perhaps suppress traffic if a security compromise is indicated (ie
traffic arriving from the wrong source).
- Probe processing provides a simple "pass/fail" indication and
sufficient information to permit a craftsperson to initiate
diagnosis. It is dependent on other tools to perform specific
diagnosis and isolation of problems. For example either the basic
CV (on p2p LSPs) or the FEC-CV (on mp2p LSPs) will identify
misconfiguration and/or misbranching problems exist and permit the
network to take some form of automated response, but will not
identify the precise problem (in the case of the basic CV it will
identify the source of the offending LSP).
- Y.1711 is not designed to extract information from the network as
to configuration and layout of network components. It does not
currently define any path tracing functionality and only operates
on LSP endpoints.
- A corollary of the above, is that only LSP end points have any
role in CV processing, and the CV probe passes transparently
through intermediate nodes.
- Y.1711 depends on some degree of ubiquitous deployment at the
edge to maximize coverage of fault detection.
- Y.1711 is primarily focused on tunnel end points. However core
LSRs may add significant value by implementing a specific subset of
Y.1711: FDI generation for P2P LSPs to provide alarm suppression
and fault notification to the edge devices when failures in the
And specific assumptions are made w.r.t. the evolution of the MPLS
- OAM friendly LSP terminations will most likely deprecate PHP.
- Permit simple state association between OAM probes and paths,
- Simplify verification of LSP function,
- Permit verification to be at the granularity of LSPs instead of
individual FEC elements,
- Permit PW and VPN labels to be explicitly tested, and
facilitate interworking with PW client OAM,
- Simplify instrumentation of performance measurement.
- allow consequent actions on defect detection to be enabled at
the appropriate node,
- allow a deterministic measurement of availability and QoS
performance metrics at the appropriate node(the latter only
have relevance when the LSP is "up" so it is important to be
able to correctly specify this behavior).
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- Load balancing implementations will become friendly to reserved
labels and preserve fate sharing between probes and traffic
LSP-PING is designed to be retrofitted to existing deployed
networks and to exercise all functionality currently deployed. In
order to do so, the design trade off is that detection or diagnosis
of a problem may take an arbitrary number of transactions.
Protocol complexity is tolerated as initial implementations will be
in software. Protocol complexity manifests itself in the form of
TLV encoding of key information (FEC stack elements, and downstream
LSR label map, extracting ECMP specifics is still a topic of
discussion). Future functionality may be added to the protocol via
the definition of additional TLVs. Protocol complexity also
manifests itself from requiring all nodes to be able to process the
Aspects of the protocol design would permit a sparse subset to be
handled in hardware (exact pattern match on the PDU). For example,
in a VPN application, pinging a PE is facilitated by limiting the
number of FECs at any level in the stack to one. Presumably an
implementation of probe handling that matched on a ping of the PE
loopback address could be optimized for that specific case.
LSP-PING permits a uni-directional path to be tested from a single
point, but depends on a reliable return path in order to propagate
the test results back to the originating LSR. Therefore the
protocol is designed to tolerate degrees of ambiguity in individual
test results. Failure of an individual ping response may be due to
any of several causes:
- Forwarding path failure (including partial failure of ECMP
or other load balancing constructs)
- Return path failure
- Port rate limiting at the egress
- Port rate limiting at the ping origin
- Congestive loss in the network
And to deal with this ping supports several features to allow
ambiguity to be eliminated via having the ingress perform
variations of the original transaction:
- Probe sequencing to permit both ingress and egress to detect
gaps in probe sequences.
- Return path may be specified permitting data plane and
control plane problems to be distinguished.
- Destination address may be manipulated to exercise payload
sensitive ECMP implementations
LSP-PING generally assumes PHP and that any specific LSP binding at
the egress point of probe processing may not exist. From the
perspective of reliable fault detection this is a minor issue as
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Y.1711 and LSP-PING
the use of a non-routable destination address limits any untested
modes of failure. However this does alter the granularity of useful
verification, as probe contents must be checked with the set of
FECs associated with the LSR, rather than simply the set
specifically associated with the LSP of interest. When testing a
label stack for a VPN PE, the number of individual transactions
required may be quite large as the number of FEC elements supported
by the PE can be considerable.
LSP-PING permits a label stack. For PW and VPN application, PHP may
be employed by the PE such that PWs and VPN labels may not be
directly tested (hence the FEC stack to permit transport or PSN
probes to proxy verification for the transported application).
LSP-PING has a traceroute mode that can extract a significant
amount of information w.r.t. network configuration. Specifically
all details of path construction for a given FEC (note that LSP-
PING will most likely need to be augmented with authentication and
authorization capability in the long term).
No assumptions are made w.r.t. the evolution of the MPLS
LSP-PING and Y.1711 should be considered to be complementary.
LSP-PING uses repeated transactions over time and the ability to
encode specific FEC information to gain authoritative precision in
testing. The PING/TRACEROUTE paradigm is suitable for employment by
craftspersons (who frequently have the luxury of time to isolate
and correct problems).
Y.1711 uses simple periodic probes (basic CV), or information
digests (FEC-CV) and egress probe processing to allow automatic
fault detection/handling and thus minimize the time required to
make an authoritative determination of the existence of a problem.
This makes Y.1711 suitable for proactive fault detection and
harmonizing MPLS operations and maintenance with many types of
[GUIDELINES] Allan, D., "Guidelines for MPLS Load Balancing", IETF
Internet Draft, November 2002
[LSP-PING] Pan et.al. "Detecting Data Plane Liveliness in MPLS",
draft-ietf-mpls-lsp-ping-01, IETF work in progress, October 2002
[Y1711] ITU-T Recommendation Y.1711, "OAM mechanism for MPLS
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Y.1711 and LSP-PING
6. Author's Address
Nortel Networks Phone: 1-613-763-6362
3500 Carling Ave. Email: email@example.com
Ottawa, Ontario, CANADA
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