Internet Draft Vladimir Popov, CRYPTO-PRO
Igor Kurepkin, CRYPTO-PRO
Expires September 30, 2004 Serguei Leontiev, CRYPTO-PRO
Intended Category: Informational March 31, 2004
Additional cryptographic algorithms for use with GOST 28147-89,
GOST R 34.10-94, GOST R 34.10-2001, and GOST R 34.11-94 algorithms.
Status of this Memo
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of Section 10 of RFC2026.
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Abstract
This document describes cryprographic algorithms and parameters,
supplementary to GOST 28147-89, GOST R 34.10-94, GOST R 34.10-2001
and GOST R 34.11-94, for use in internet applications.
Table of Contents
1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2 Terminology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2 Cipher modes and parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1 GOST 28147-89 CBC mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.2 GOST 28147-89 padding modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.3 Key Meshing Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.3.1 Null Key Meshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.3.2 CryptoPro Key Meshing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3 HMAC_GOSTR3411 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
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4 PRF_GOSTR3411. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
5 Key Derivation Algorithms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
5.1 VKO GOST R 34.10-94. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
5.2 VKO GOST R 34.10-2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
6 Key Wrap algorithms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
6.1 GOST 28147-89 Key Wrap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
6.2 GOST 28147-89 Key Unrap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6.3 CryptoPro Key Wrap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6.4 CryptoPro Key Unwrap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
6.5 CryptoPro KEK Diversification Algorithm. . . . . . . . . 8
7 Secret Key Diversification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
8 Algorithm parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
8.1 Encryption algorithm parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
8.2 Digest algorithm parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
8.3 GOST R 34.10-94 public key algorithm parameters . . . . 11
8.4 GOST R 34.10-2001 public key algorithm parameters. . . . 12
9 Security Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
10 Appendix ASN.1 Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
11 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
12 Acknowledgments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Author's Address. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Full Copyright Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
1 Introduction
Russian cryptographic standards defining algorithms GOST 28147-89
[GOST28147], GOST R 34.10-94 [GOSTR341094], GOST R 34.10-2001
[GOSTR34102001] and GOST R34.11-94 [GOSTR341194] (a brief english
technical description of these algorithms can be found in
[Schneier95]) provide basic information about how the algorithms
work, but need supplemental specifications to effectively use the
algorithms.
This document is a proposal put forward by CRYPT-PRO Company to
provide the supplemental information and specifications needed by the
"Russian Cryptographic Software Compatibility Agreement" community.
1.2 Terminology
In this document, the key words MUST, MUST NOT, REQUIRED, SHOULD,
SHOULD NOT, RECOMMENDED, and MAY are to be interpreted as described
in [RFC 2119].
The following functions and operators are also used in this document:
'|' stands for concatenation
encryptECB (K, D) - is D, encrypted with key K using GOST 28147-89 in
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"prostaya zamena" (ECB) mode
decryptECB (K, D) - is D, decrypted with key K using GOST 28147-89 in
ECB mode
encryptCFB (IV, K, D) - is D, encrypted with key K using GOST
28147-89 in "gammirovanie s obratnoj svyaziyu" (64-bit CFB) mode, and
IV as initialization vector.
encryptCNT (IV, K, D) - is D, encrypted with key K using GOST
28147-89 in "gammirovanie" (counter) mode, and IV as initialization
vector.
gostR3411 (D) - is the 256-bit result of GOST R 34.11-94 hash
function, used with zero intitialization vector, and S-Box parameter,
defined by gostR3411CryptoProParamSetAI (see Appendix,
GostR3411-94-ParamSetSyntax module).
gost28147IMIT (IV, K, D) - is the 32-bit result of GOST 28147-89 in
"imitovstavka" (MAC) mode, used with D as plaintext, K as key and IV
as initialization vector. Note, that standard specifies it's use in
this mode only with zero initialization vector.
When keys and initialization vectors are converted to/from byte
arrays, little-endian byte order is assumed.
2 Cipher modes and parameters
[GOST28147] defines only three cipher modes for GOST 28147-89: ECB,
CFB and counter mode. This document defines an additional cipher mode
CBC.
When GOST 28147-89 is used to process large amounts of data, a
symmetric key should be protected by key meshing algorithm. This
document defines CryptoPro key meshing algorithm.
The cipher mode, key meshing algorithm, padding mode and S-box are
specified by algorithm parameters.
2.1 GOST 28147-89 CBC mode
This section provides the supplemental information to GOST 28147-89
(a block to block primitive) needed to operate in CBC mode.
Before each plaintext block is encrypted, it is combined with the
cipher text of the previous block by a bitwise XOR operation. This
ensures that even if the plaintext contains many identical blocks,
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they will each encrypt to a different cipher text block. The
initialization vector is combined with the first plaintext block by a
bitwise XOR operation before the block is encrypted.
2.2 GOST 28147-89 padding modes
This section provides the supplemental information to GOST 28147-89,
needed to operate on plaintext, which length is not divisible by GOST
28147-89 block size (8 bytes).
Let x (0 < x < 8) be the number of bytes in the last (possibly,
incomplete) block of data. There are three padding modes:
* Zero padding: 8-x remaining bytes are filled with zero
* PKCS#5 padding: 8-x remaining bytes are filled with value of 8-x.
If there's no incomplete block, one extra block filled with
value 8 is added.
* Random padding: 8-x remaining bytes of the last block are
set to random.
2.3 Key Meshing Algorithms
When there is a need to limit the amount of data, enciphered with the
same key, several key meshing algorithms can be used. Key meshing
algorithms transform the key after processing a certain amount of
data.
All encryption parameter sets, defined in this document, specify use
of CryptoPro key meshing algorithm, except for id-
Gost28147-89-TestParamSet, which specifies use of null key meshing
algorithm.
2.3.1 Null Key Meshing
A null key meshing algorithm never changes a key. It's OID is:
id-Gost28147-89-None-KeyMeshing OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=
{ id-CryptoPro-algorithms keyMeshing(14) none(0) }
This algorithm has NULL parameters.
2.3.2 CryptoPro Key Meshing
CryptoPro key meshing algorithm transforms the key and initialization
vector every 1KB of plaintext data. It's OID is:
id-Gost28147-89-CryptoPro-KeyMeshing OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=
{ id-CryptoPro-algorithms keyMeshing(14) cryptoPro(1) }
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This algorithm has NULL parameters.
Encryption or decryption starts with key K[0] = K, IV0[0] = IV, i =
0. Let IV[0] be the value of initialization vector after processing
1K of data. Encryption or decryption of next 1K data block will start
with K[1] and IV0[1], which are calculated using formula:
K[i+1] = decryptECB (K[i], C);
IV0[i+1] = encryptECB (K[i+1],IV[i])
Where C = {0x69, 0x00, 0x72, 0x22, 0x64, 0xC9, 0x04, 0x23,
0x8D, 0x3A, 0xDB, 0x96, 0x46, 0xE9, 0x2A, 0xC4,
0x18, 0xFE, 0xAC, 0x94, 0x00, 0xED, 0x07, 0x12,
0xC0, 0x86, 0xDC, 0xC2, 0xEF, 0x4C, 0xA9, 0x2B};
After processing every next 1K block, current initialization vector
is stored as IV[i+1], i is incremented and the same transformation
applied.
3 HMAC_GOSTR3411
HMAC_GOSTR3411 (K,text) function is based on hash function GOST R
34.11-94, as defined in [HMAC], with the following parameter values:
B = 32, L = 32.
4 PRF_GOSTR3411
PRF_GOSTR3411 is a pseudorandom function, based on HMAC_GOSTR3411.
It is calculated as P_hash, defined in section 5 of [TLS].
PRF_GOSTR3411(K,D) = P_GOSTR3411 (K,D)
5 Key Derivation Algorithms
Standards [GOSTR341094] and [GOSTR34102001] do not define any key
derivation algorithms.
Section 5.1 specifies algorithm VKO GOST R 34.10-94, which generates
GOST KEK using two GOST R 34.10-94 keypairs.
Section 5.2 specifies algorithm VKO GOST R 34.10-2001, which
generates GOST KEK using two GOST R 34.10-2001 keypairs, and
synchrovector A.
Keypairs MUST have identical parameters.
5.1 VKO GOST R 34.10-94
This algorithm creates a a key encryption key (KEK) using sender's
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private key and recipient public key, or vice versa.
Exchange key EK is a 256-bit hash of 1024-bit Diffie-Hellman key
K(x,y);
1. Let K(x,y) = a^(x*y) (mod p), where
x - sender's private key, a^x - sender's public key
y - recipient's private key, a^y - recipient's public key
a, p - parameters 2. Calculate a 256-bit hash of K(x,y):
KEK(x,y) = gostR3411 (K(x,y))
Keypairs x and y MUST comply with [GOSTR341094].
This algorithm MUST NOT be used, when a^x = a (mod p) or a^y = a (mod
p).
5.2 VKO GOST R 34.10-2001
This algorithm creates a key encryption key (KEK) using synchrovector,
sender's private key and recipient public key, or vice versa.
1. Let K(x,y,IV) = ((IV*x)(mod q)) . (y.P) (512 bit), where
x - sender's private key (256 bit)
x.P - sender's public key (512 bit)
y - recipient's private key (256 bit)
y.P - recipient's public key (512 bit)
IV - synchrovector (64 bit)
P - base point on the elliptic curve (two 256-bit coordinates)
IV*x - x multiplied by IV as integers
x.P - a multiple point
2. Calculate a 256-bit hash of K(x,y,IV):
KEK(x,y,IV) = gostR3411 (K(x,y,IV))
Keypairs x and y MUST comply with [GOSTR34102001].
This algorithm MUST NOT be used, when x.P = P, y.P = P
6 Key Wrap algorithms
This document defines two key wrap algorithms: GOST 28147-89 Key Wrap
and CryptoPro Key Wrap.
6.1 GOST 28147-89 Key Wrap
This algorithm encrypts GOST 28147-89 CEK with a GOST 28147-89 KEK.
Note: This algorithm MUST NOT be used with KEK produced by VKO GOST R
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34.10-94, because such KEK is constant for every sender-recipient
pair. Encrypting many different content encryption keys on the same
constant KEK may reveal this KEK.
Identifier for this algorithm:
id-Gost28147-89-None-KeyWrap OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=
{ id-CryptoPro-algorithms keyWrap(13) none(0) }
The GOST 28147-89 key wrap algorithm is:
1. For unique symmetric KEK, generate 8 octets at random,
call the result IV.
For KEK, produced by VKO GOST R 34.10-2001, use the same IV,
that was used for key derivation.
2. Compute a 4-byte checksum value, gost28147IMIT (IV, KEK, CEK),
call the result CEK_MAC.
3. Encrypt CEK in ECB mode using KEK. Use IV, generated in step 1.
Call the ciphertext CEK_ENC.
4. Let RES = IV | CEK_ENC | CEK_MAC.
6.2 GOST 28147-89 Key Unwrap
This algorithm decrypts GOST 28147-89 CEK with a GOST 28147-89 KEK.
The GOST 28147-89 key unwrap algorithm is:
1. If the wrapped content-encryption key is not 44 octets, then
error.
2. Decompose the the wrapped content-encryption key into IV, CEK_ENC
and CEK_MAC. IV is the most significant (first) 8 octets, CEK_ENC
is next 32 octets, and CEK_MAC is the least significant (last) 4
octets.
3. Decrypt CEK_ENC in ECB mode using KEK. Use IV, obrained in
step 1. Call the output CEK.
4. Compute a 4-byte checksum value, gost28147IMIT (IV, KEK, CEK),
compare the result CEK_MAC. If not equal, then error.
6.3 CryptoPro Key Wrap
This algorithm encrypts GOST 28147-89 CEK with a GOST 28147-89 KEK.
It can be used with any KEK, e.g. produced by VKO GOST R 34.10-94 or
VKO GOST R 34.10-2001, because unique initialization vector is used
to diversify the KEK.
Identifier for this algorithm:
id-Gost28147-89-CryptoPro-KeyWrap OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=
{ id-CryptoPro-algorithms keyWrap(13) cryptoPro(1) }
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The CryptoPro key wrap algorithm is:
1. For unique symmetric KEK, or KEK produced by VKO GOST R 34.10-94,
generate 8 octets at random, call the result IV.
For KEK, produced by VKO GOST R 34.10-2001, use the same IV,
that was used for key derivation.
2. Diversify KEK, using CryptoPro KEK Diversification Algorithm,
described in section 7.2.1, call the result KEK(IV);
3. Compute a 4-byte checksum value,
gost28147IMIT (IV, KEK(IV), CEK), call the result CEK_MAC.
4. Encrypt CEK in ECB mode using KEK(IV). Use IV, generated in
step 1.
Call the ciphertext CEK_ENC.
5. Let RES = IV | CEK_ENC | CEK_MAC.
6.4 CryptoPro Key Unrap
This algorithm encrypts GOST 28147-89 CEK with a GOST 28147-89 KEK.
The CryptoPro key unwrap algorithm is:
1. If the wrapped content-encryption key is not 44 octets, then
error.
2. Decompose the the wrapped content-encryption key into IV, CEK_ENC
and CEK_MAC. IV is the most significant (first) 8 octets, CEK_ENC
is next 32 octets, and CEK_MAC is the least significant (last)
4 octets.
3. Diversify KEK, using CryptoPro KEK Diversification Algorithm,
described in section 6.5, call the result KEK(IV);
4. Decrypt CEK_ENC in ECB mode using KEK(IV). Use IV, obrained in
step 1. Call the output CEK.
5. Compute a 4-byte checksum value,
gost28147IMIT (IV, KEK(IV), CEK), compare the result CEK_MAC.
If not equal, then error.
6.5 CryptoPro KEK Diversification Algorithm
Given a random 64-bit synchrovector IV, and a GOST 28147-89 key K,
this algorithm creates a new GOST 28147-89 key K(IV).
1. Let K[0] = K;
2. IV is split into components a[i,j]:
IV = a[0]|...|a[7] (a[i] - byte, a[i,0]..a[i,7] - it's bits)
3. Let i be 0.
4. K[1]..K[8] are calculated by repeating the
following algorithm eight times:
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A) K[i] is split into components k[i,j]:
K[i] = k[i,0]|k[i,1]|...|k[i,7] (k[i,j] - 32-bit integer)
B) Vector S[i] is calculated:
S[i] = ((a[i,0]*k[i,0] + ... + a[i,7]*k[i,7]) mod 2^32)
| ((~a[i,0]*k[i,0] + ... + ~a[i,7]*k[i,7]) mod 2^32);
C) K[i+1] = encryptCFB (S[i], K[i], K[i])
D) i = i + 1
5. Let K(IV) be K[8].
7 Secret Key Diversification
This algorithm creates a GOST 28147-89 key Kd, given GOST R 34.10-94
or GOST R 34.10-2001 secret key K and diversification data D of size
4..40 bytes.
1) 40-byte blob B is created from D by cloning it enough times to
fill all 40 bytes. For example, if D is 40-bytes long, B = D; If D is
4-bytes long, B = D|D|D|D|D|D|D|D|D|D.
2) B is split into 8-byte SV and 32-byte SRCKEY (B = SV|SRCKEY).
3) Algorithm from section 6.5 is used to create K(SV) from key K and
synchrovector SV, with two differences. Instead of S[i], vector
(0,0,0,SV[i],ff,ff,ff,ff XOR SV[i]) is used, and during each
encryption step, only 8 out of 32 GOST 28147-89 steps are done.
4) Kd is calculated:
Kd = encryptCFB (IV, K(IV), SRCKEY).
8 Algorithm parameters
Standards [GOST28147], [GOST341194], [GOSTR341094] and
[GOSTR34102001] do not define specific values for algorithm
parameters.
This document introduces the use of OIDs to specify algorithm
parameters.
Identifiers and corresponding parameter values for all of the
proposed parameter sets can be found in Appendix in the form of ASN.1
modules [X.660].
8.1 Encryption algorithm parameters
GOST 28147-89 can be used in several modes, additional CBC mode is
defined in section 2.1 this document. It also has an S-Box parameter
(see Algorithm Parameters part in [GOST28147] in Russian, description
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in English see in [Schneier95] ch. 14.1, p. 331).
This table contains the list of proposed parameter sets for GOST
28147-89:
Gost28147-89-ParamSetAlgorithms ALGORITHM-IDENTIFIER ::= {
{ Gost28147-89-ParamSetParameters IDENTIFIED BY
id-Gost28147-89-TestParamSet } |
{ Gost28147-89-ParamSetParameters IDENTIFIED BY
id-Gost28147-89-CryptoPro-A-ParamSet } |
{ Gost28147-89-ParamSetParameters IDENTIFIED BY
id-Gost28147-89-CryptoPro-B-ParamSet } |
{ Gost28147-89-ParamSetParameters IDENTIFIED BY
id-Gost28147-89-CryptoPro-C-ParamSet } |
{ Gost28147-89-ParamSetParameters IDENTIFIED BY
id-Gost28147-89-CryptoPro-D-ParamSet } |
{ Gost28147-89-ParamSetParameters IDENTIFIED BY
id-Gost28147-89-CryptoPro-Simple-A-ParamSet } |
{ Gost28147-89-ParamSetParameters IDENTIFIED BY
id-Gost28147-89-CryptoPro-Simple-B-ParamSet } |
{ Gost28147-89-ParamSetParameters IDENTIFIED BY
id-Gost28147-89-CryptoPro-Simple-C-ParamSet } |
{ Gost28147-89-ParamSetParameters IDENTIFIED BY
id-Gost28147-89-CryptoPro-Simple-D-ParamSet }
}
Identifier values can be found in Appendix.
Parameters for GOST 28147-89 are presented in the following form:
Gost28147-89-ParamSetParameters ::= SEQUENCE {
eUZ Gost28147-89-UZ,
mode INTEGER {
gost28147-89-CNT(0),
gost28147-89-CFB(1),
cryptoPro-CBC(2)
},
shiftBits INTEGER { gost28147-89-block(64) },
keyWrap AlgorithmIdentifier,
keyMeshing AlgorithmIdentifier
}
Gost28147-89-UZ ::= OCTET STRING (SIZE (64))
Gost28147-89-KeyMeshingAlgorithms ALGORITHM-IDENTIFIER ::= {
{ NULL IDENTIFIED BY id-Gost28147-89-CryptoPro-KeyMeshing } |
{ NULL IDENTIFIED BY id-Gost28147-89-None-KeyMeshing }
}
Gost28147-89-KeyWrapAlgorithms ALGORITHM-IDENTIFIER ::= {
{ NULL IDENTIFIED BY id-Gost28147-89-CryptoPro-KeyWrap } |
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{ NULL IDENTIFIED BY id-Gost28147-89-None-KeyWrap }
}
where
eUZ - S-box value;
mode - cipher mode;
shiftBits - cipher parameter;
keyWrap - key export algorithm identifier;
keyMeshing - key meshing algorithm identifier.
8.2 Digest algorithm parameters
This table contains the list of proposed parameter sets for
[GOST341194]:
GostR3411-94-ParamSetAlgorithms ALGORITHM-IDENTIFIER ::= {
{ GostR3411-94-ParamSetParameters IDENTIFIED BY
id-GostR3411-94-TestParamSet
} |
{ GostR3411-94-ParamSetParameters IDENTIFIED BY
id-GostR3411-94-CryptoProParamSet
}
}
Identifier values can be found in Appendix.
Parameters for [GOST341194] are presented in the following form:
GostR3411-94-ParamSetParameters ::=
SEQUENCE {
hUZ Gost28147-89-UZ, -- S-Box for digest
h0 GostR3411-94-Digest -- start digest value
}
GostR3411-94-Digest ::= OCTET STRING (SIZE (32))
6.3 GOST R 34.10-94 public key algorithm parameters
This table contains the list of proposed parameter sets for GOST R
34.10-94:
GostR3410-94-ParamSetAlgorithm ALGORITHM-IDENTIFIER ::= {
{ GostR3410-94-ParamSetParameters IDENTIFIED BY
id-GostR3410-94-TestParamSet } |
{ GostR3410-94-ParamSetParameters IDENTIFIED BY
id-GostR3410-94-CryptoPro-A-ParamSet } |
{ GostR3410-94-ParamSetParameters IDENTIFIED BY
id-GostR3410-94-CryptoPro-B-ParamSet } |
{ GostR3410-94-ParamSetParameters IDENTIFIED BY
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id-GostR3410-94-CryptoPro-C-ParamSet } |
{ GostR3410-94-ParamSetParameters IDENTIFIED BY
id-GostR3410-94-CryptoPro-D-ParamSet } |
{ GostR3410-94-ParamSetParameters IDENTIFIED BY
id-GostR3410-94-CryptoPro-XchA-ParamSet } |
{ GostR3410-94-ParamSetParameters IDENTIFIED BY
id-GostR3410-94-CryptoPro-XchB-ParamSet } |
{ GostR3410-94-ParamSetParameters IDENTIFIED BY
id-GostR3410-94-CryptoPro-XchC-ParamSet }
}
Identifier values can be found in Appendix.
Parameters for GOST R 34.10-94 are presented in the following form:
GostR3410-94-ParamSetParameters ::=
SEQUENCE {
p INTEGER,
q INTEGER,
a INTEGER,
validationAlgorithm AlgorithmIdentifier {{
GostR3410-94-ValidationAlgorithms
}} OPTIONAL
}
GostR3410-94-ValidationParameters ::=
SEQUENCE {
t INTEGER,
x0 INTEGER,
c INTEGER,
d INTEGER OPTIONAL
}
Where
p - modulus, prime number, 2^1023